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علوم پزشکی رازی (مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران) | سال:1400 | دوره:28 | شماره:2

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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Start Page: 

    1
  • End Page: 

    10
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    130
  • Downloads: 

    119
Abstract: 

Background and Aims: Mitochondria are the most important sites for the production of energy and lipids, nucleic acids and amino acid precursors and are one of the most important sources for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction increases ROS and oxidative stress, which are associated with diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Today, cooking oil consumption has increased worldwide. During heating, oils are continuously oxidized, releasing lipid hydroperoxides and finally free radicals. Free radicals and oxidative stress in heated oils affect the bodychr('39')s energy production sources such as mitochondria. Therefore, to maintain energy production, mitochondria need to activate factors that can remove damaged parts of the mitochondria to achieve a healthier mitochondrial network by reducing ROS production and mitochondrial biogenesis. This process of selective removal of the affected part of the mitochondria is a form of autophagy called mitophagy. Lysosome-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A) is a lysosome membrane receptor to which damaged proteins attach, enter the lysosome, and break down. LAMP2A acts as an autophagy and its downregulation induces autophagy. Parkin protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and acts as a mitophagy in removing damaged mitochondria in various tissues of the body. Exercise has recently been recognized as an effective way to increase mitochondrial function, and the role of exercise in improving mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in various diseases has been reported. On the other hand, today, researchers are paying attention to sports supplements to reduce the physiological damage caused by exercise such as oxidative stress. One of these supplements is octopamine, which according to studies has antioxidant properties and stimulates fat metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aerobic training and octopamine on LAMP2A and parkin gene expression and SOD concentration in the liver tissue of male Wistar rats fed with the repeated heated oil. Methods: In an experimental study, 25 adult male Wistar rats weighing an average of 300 to 350 g and aged 8 weeks were purchased. All the rats were kept in polycarbonate cages (5 mice per cage) at 22± 2° C, 55% humidity and under the light and dark cycle for 12: 12 hours without restriction on water and food. All the rats were randomly divided into five groups, healthy control group (n=5), DFO group (n=5), aerobic training + DFO group (n=5), octopamine + DFO group (n=5) and aerobic training + octopamine + DFO group (n=5). Intraperitoneal injection of octopamine and Gavage of repeated heated oil were done five times a week and every day, respectively. The aerobic training protocol consisted of 4 weeks of aerobic training and 5 sessions per week. The training session included 5 minutes of warm-up at 7 m / min and 5 minutes of cooling at 5 m / min. The intensity of training started in the first week with 50% vo2max and a speed of 16 m / min, and in the last week it reached 65% Vo2max and a speed of 26 m / min. 48 hours after the last training session and 8 hours of fasting, all the rats were anesthetized with chloroform and then sacrificed. Blood samples were taken directly from the liver by heparin-soaked syringe and the liver tissue was immediately removed from the body and stored in a nitrogen tank at-80 ° C. Gene expression of LAMP2A and Parkin were measured by Real time-PCR and SOD concentration was measured by ELISA test. One-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test were used to analysis the data. The significant level was set at p<0. 05. Results: The results showed that consumption of repeated heated oil induced significant increase in gene expression of Parkin (p<0. 05) and significant decrease in gene expression of LAMP2A (p<0. 05) and concentration of SOD (p<0. 05) compared to healthy control group. The aerobic training caused increase in SOD concentration and non-significant difference in gene expression of Parkin (p>0. 05) and LAMP2A (p>0. 05) compared to DFO group. Interaction effect of aerobic training and octopamine caused the significant increase in gene expression of SOD concentration (p<0. 05) and non-significant difference in Parkin and LAMP2A gene expression (p>0. 05) in comparison with DFO group. Conclusion: Regarding the incremental effect of aerobic training on SOD concentration, it is likely that due to aerobic training, Nrf2 activity increases, and isolation of the Nrf2-Kaep1 complex, and binding of Nrf2 to the antioxidant responsive element occurs. Subsequently, the transcription of the antioxidant genes, that is SOD, takes place and it is increased. The antioxidant properties of octopamine in interaction with the effect of aerobic training have also been able to significantly increase the concentration of SOD. Regarding the effect of aerobic training and octopamine consumption alone on the expression of the LAMP2A gene, it is likely that they exert their effect by reducing oxidative stress and increasing the inhibition of AKT1, which increases antioxidant activity in the liver tissue cells. The interactive effect of aerobic training and octopamine also showed an insignificant increase in LAMP2A gene expression compared to the DFO group, but this increase is physiologically beneficial. In contrast, Parkin gene expression showed an insignificant decrease due to aerobic training and octopamine consumption alone and simultaneously, indicating an increase in the activity of antioxidants, including SOD, which decreases oxidative stress and consequently reduces mitophagy (decreased expression of Parkin gene) in the liver tissue, by varying the intensity, duration of training, and dose of octopamine, better results may be obtained. In general, it seems that the interaction of aerobic training and octopamine can improve antioxidants and mitophagy in the liver.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Start Page: 

    104
  • End Page: 

    116
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    127
  • Downloads: 

    256
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Infidelity is one of the most shocking phenomena in the relationship between couples and families and also one of the most common problems among couples who refer to couples therapists. Online betrayal, despite its differences, may have similarities to other forms of betrayal, and there is a challenge for clinicians in providing a single definition that covers both types of betrayal. Therapists agree that secrecy is a constant aspect of various types of infidelity, including cyber infidelity. For all societies, especially Iran as a cultural-religious and family-oriented country, is considered an alarm, the possibility of the impact of the Internet on increasing the prevalence of betrayal as a new context and tool with a large number of users. Studies have shown that online infidelity, like real-world infidelity, can lead to marital discord, separation, and even divorce. Infidelity of any kind damages the relationship and deprives couples of trust. In the case of online infidelity, where infidelity is usually committed at home, with a spouse, and by a device that has other positive uses, these harms may be even greater. The identification of these coping strategies has not been studied specifically in the case of cyber infidelity. arrives. Therefore, the present study addressed the main question: what are the behaviors that justify infidelity and in other words, the mechanisms for dealing with marital conflicts? Methods: The methodology of this research was qualitative research and phenomenological approach. The inclusion criteria of the participants in the research were: 1) married, 2) cyberspace user, and 3) have experienced at least one online extramarital affair with a heterosexual during their married life. Sampling from the current research community, in which married cyberspace users were involved in cyber-betrayal, faced many difficulties due to its taboo nature and the possibility of hiding cyber-betrayal. Clients of professors and colleagues involved in cybercrime were reluctant to work with an anonymous interviewer for fear of disclosure. Clients who consulted a researcher as a victim of cybercrime were unable to satisfy the person involved in cybercrime, who was usually their spouse or parents. Finally, the researcher announced the subject of his research to friends and acquaintances that this method was effective. The first interview was conducted in this way and two other people were interviewed by snowball sampling. Seven samples were also discovered during one-on-one counseling sessions at a private counseling center who agreed to cooperate and record audio due to the trust placed in the counseling process. Therefore, sampling in this study was done by snowball and purposeful method. Subsequent sampling process was guided by the concepts obtained from the analysis of the initial interviews. The sample size was also determined by theoretical saturation. This means that after coding and defining the concepts after the tenth interview, no other data was added and the relationships between the concepts were established and explained. For more reassurance, two other people were interviewed. Therefore, interviews were conducted with 12 people involved in cyber betrayal. The instrument of the present study was a semi-structured in-depth interview. The duration of the interview ranged from 1 to 1. 5. The interviews in this study were collected over a period of about 2 years. The interviews began with a general question about cybercrime and were followed by exploratory questions such as (can you explain more or can you explain what you mean? Explain more clearly? ) Was used. Dickelman, Allen and Tanner interpretive analysis methods were used to analyze the data. After each interview, the audio file was translated into written text and transferred to Max-QDA software version 2020 and analyzed. The text of the interviews was read several times to give the researcher a general meaning of each interview. For each interview, a commentary summary was written in line with the purpose of understanding and extracting the hidden meanings. Results: In the present study, 12 men and women who were involved in cybercrime were interviewed to ensure data saturation. During the initial coding process, 84 initial codes were identified from the interview data. After examining the commonalities in different dimensions, the semantic units of these units were classified into 11 sub-themes. Finally, based on the observed internal relationships between the sub-themes, 2 main themes were created. 1-Intrapersonal justifiers: Some participants used cognitive confrontations to reduce their cognitive inconsistencies to justify their behavior. The following topics were: Self-deception-Self-righteousness-Irresponsible self-reassurance-Compensation of needs in an irresponsible way and overcoming desires and needs over value barriers-Elimination of internal barriers in chat-Experiencing addictive behaviors. 2-Interpersonal justifications: Internet infidelity is a behavior that some research participants choose to avoid or compensate for their problems with their spouse. Of course, an interpersonal sub-theme is also related to the relationship with a third party in interaction with cyberspace. The following are the topics: conflict avoidance, unhealthy problem solving, retaliation, and the experience of increasing intimacy in everyday chats. For all societies, especially Iran as a cultural-religious and family-oriented country, is considered an alarm, the possibility of the impact of the Internet on increasing the prevalence of betrayal as a new context and tool with a large number of users. Studies have shown that online infidelity, like real-world infidelity, can lead to marital discord, separation, and even divorce. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, it seems that in line with the mechanisms of coping with marital conflicts, intrapersonal and interpersonal justifiers; Involvement strategies of individuals involved in Internet infidelity. Intrapersonal justifiers were in fact cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dysfunctions that participants used to justify Internet infidelity in order to reduce the cognitive dissonance created within them. The theme of interpersonal justifications is also one of the strategies to justify Internet infidelity, which reflects the dysfunctional behavioral and emotional confrontations that people adopt in the face of marital problems. There was also interpersonal justification found in this study. There seems to be a two-way relationship between some of the obtained themes and the phenomenon of cyber-betrayal. Some sub-themes, such as conflict avoidance, are sometimes a prerequisite for initiating cyber-betrayal and sometimes a consequence. For example, in some participants, avoiding conflict led to resorting to the Internet, while others avoided conflict after betraying the Internet. In some cases, the sub-themes had an interactive effect, for example, disabling chatting could increase everyday intimacy, or vice versa. Finally, given the Iranian cultural context, online betrayal seems to be an emerging harmful phenomenon that can It can cause harm to the individual, spouse and family and consequently social consequences. Therefore, studying this phenomenon can help reduce personal, family and social harms. This study faced limitations in its path, including the fact that due to the difficulty in finding the sample, it was not possible to separate gender and age intervenors, and the results of the study addressed a range of age and gender, so the possibility of comparing the two sexes and different age groups there was not. It is suggested that future studies focus on different age groups, a separate study of both sexes, and a simultaneous study of couples to gain a more comprehensive understanding of intrapersonal and interpersonal justification strategies for coping with marital conflict.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Start Page: 

    11
  • End Page: 

    22
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    147
  • Downloads: 

    147
Abstract: 

Background and Aims: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease and chronic inflammation of the central nervous system that is associated with inflammation, demyelination, and destruction of axons. These symptoms potentially harmed the quality of life and day-to-day activities in MS persons. Therefore, therapeutic interventions that modulate the immunity system can help to relieve these symptoms and prevent disease progression. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukine-17 (IL-17) and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukine-10 (IL-10) have an important role in MS progression. Exercise training as non-pharmaceutical intervention seems to have a good potential for the treatment and control of neuroinflammation disease symptoms, especially MS via upregulation of cytokines. Fatigue one of the common symptoms in MS peoples that correlated with cytokines. However, the effectiveness of exercise training types on MS peoples not investigated obviously. Recently, the use of functional training has become common in patients and the elderly. Previous studies were reported efficiency of this functional training for rehabilitation, physical fitness, and wellness. Functional training are any exercises that tried to train the muscles in coordinated, multi-axis, multi-articulated movement patterns, with dynamic tasks and by constantly changing the support base of the movement to improve performance. TRX suspension training, elastic band training, and rhythmic aerobic are components of functional training. To our knowledge, no study has investigated the effect of functional training with TRX suspension training, elastic band training, and rhythmic aerobic training on inflammatory factors, fatigue, and body composition in MS persons. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate of the effect of the combined functional training on serum levels of IL-17, IL-10, fatigue, and body composition in MS women. Methods: Twenty relapsing-remitting MS women with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) ˂ 5. 0. The participant EDSS evaluated by an experienced neurologist. Inclusion criteria were the lack of regular exercise, no relapse of the disease for the last six months, lack of pregnancy, non-smoking, non-addiction to drugs and alcohol, no history of cardiovascular, metabolic, mental, cancer, and orthopedic diseases. Exclusion criteria were relapse of disease, inability to performing training program, and had signs of any diseases. Participants were randomly divided into combined functional training and control group. Just 16 subjects could complete all stages of the present study. The combined functional training group participated in eight weeks with 3 days per week. After standard warm-up, subjects performed rhythmic aerobic training with an intensity of 55-70% of maximum heart rate. Session duration was 15 minutes (min) in the 1 and 2 weeks and 20 min from the 3-8 weeks. Afterwards, resistance training includes of elastic band training, TRX suspension training, and bodyweight training performed after 5-10 min resting break. Participants used one of the resistance training modes after aerobic training in each session. They performed 1 set in 1-4 weeks and 2 sets in 5-8 weeks. 1-2 min of resting breaks were considered between the exercises and sets. Elastic band exercises include of flexion of biceps, triceps, and thigh muscles. Training intensity was determined by color and elongation rate of the bands. Participants were used of blue color Theraband according to their condition and ability (25-100% elongation with a resistance of 1. 3 to 2. 3 kg). TRX suspension exercises also include of rowing, squat, lung, and sit-ups. Bodyweight training was consisting of active and passive movements to strengthen and improve the balance of arms, legs, and trunk. After main training, standard cool-down was done. The training intensity was monitored every week by the Borg 6-20 category rate of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. The RPE for first 4 weeks was light to moderate (10-13), and the last 4 weeks intensity was moderate to hard (13-16). The control group had no regular physical activity during this period. Blood samples were taken 48 hours before and after the training intervention from all participants in pre and posttest to determine serum levels of IL-17 and IL-10 by electrochemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method with commercial ELISA kits (Shanghai crystal day biotech co, China). Fatigue severity and body composition were evaluated using a fatigue severity scale (FSS) questionnaire and bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) method by Inbody-3 device made in Korea, respectively. For data analyses, two-way mixed ANOVA with independent and paired samples T-tests were used. A significant time X group interaction in the multivariate tests of the ANOVA was considered to indicate a significant training effect. Delta changes (posttest-pretest) were calculated and analyzed for variables that have significant differences in between-subjects factor. The significance level in all analyses was set at P≤ 0. 05. Results: Mixed ANOVA analysis indicated significant differences in time x group interaction between IL-10, 1L-17, and fatigue. Between-group changes showed that combined functional training resulted in a significant reduction of IL-17, fatigue, and significant increase in IL-10 levels compared with the control group. Time interaction demonstrated significant changes in IL-10, IL-17, fatigue and body-fat percentage. IL-17, fatigue, and body-fat percentage in the combined functional training group were significantly decreased compared with the pre-test. IL-10 in the combined functional training group was significantly increased compared with the pre-test. However, fat-free mass did not change significantly in multiple sclerosis women. Conclusion: Today, aerobic, anaerobic, and resistance exercise has been considered as the most promising non-pharmacological treatment for MS patients with disabilities to reduce fatigue and depression and improve the quality of life of these people without aggravating symptoms. Previous studies have reported that exercise may have indirect anti-inflammatory effects and may be useful in the activity of the MS immune system. Exercise can mediate immune function through local and systemic production of cytokines. With the results obtained after eight weeks of combined functional training in the present study, it can be concluded that the selected functional training along with a benefiting variety of training and combination of applied exercises, could reduce and prevent the exacerbation of symptoms such as fatigue. It was also effective in reducing inflammatory markers and may be effective in reducing disease progression, nerve cell destruction and reducing disease relapsing. It also reduced body-fat percentage. Therefore, the combined functional training program which has a home-base nature, can be recommended to MS patients along with another medical intervention to control and treatment of the disease symptoms.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Start Page: 

    23
  • End Page: 

    32
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    106
  • Downloads: 

    118
Abstract: 

Background and Aims: Most chronic diseases are associated with an imbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzymes, which leads to deviation from the steady state. This process is called oxidative stress. One of the complications of oxidative stress is liver dysfunction. In this case, programmed cell death (apoptosis) appears to increase in liver cells and damage the tissue. Increased production of ROS without adequate antioxidant defense leads to oxidative stress and cell death and apoptosis, which is associated with various diseases and abnormalities. However, some studies have shown that exercise is associated with reduction in apoptosis. In this regard, Fernandez et al. (2012) showed that 10 weeks of regular swimming training in male rats increased anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-x) and decreased apoptotic proteins (BAD). also, Chen et al showed that 11 weeks of treadmill running increased Bcl-2 in rats with doxorubicin-induced chronic kidney disease, while caspase-8 levels decreased. On the other hand, studies have shown the benefits of vitamin D on liver health. Recent studies have reported an association between vitamin D3 deficiency and the incidence of liver disease. According to the research’ s mentioned and in response to the ambiguities caused by the apoptotic or protective effects of exercise in various physiological situations, including exposure to oxidative stress, which has an undeniable effect on the body and vital organs, including the liver. Therefore, the present study intends to investigate the question of whether regular aerobic exercise and vitamin D supplementation effect on hepatic Apoptosis levels in rats exposed to oxygenated water? Methods: This is an experimental study. This research was conducted in 2019 on Wistar rats in Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. 60 male Wistar rats weighed 220± 20 g was randomly divided into ten groups. Then, The animals were exposed to oxidative stress (intraperitoneal injection of H2O2 3 times a week), vitamin D3 (intraperitoneal injection daily) and exercise on treadmill for 8 weeks (30 to 60 min, at speeds of 8 to 20 m/min) after the last training session liver tissue was extracted and Caspase-8 protein concentration measured by ELISA method. Results: The results showed that Caspase-8 protein levels were higher in the H, 2H, HD and 2HD groups compared to the control group (p<0. 01). Also, HE and HDE groups as well as 2HE and 2HDE groups showed lower levels of Caspase-8 protein in liver tissue compared to H and 2H groups, respectively (p<0. 001). Conclusion: Vitamin D can enhance the production of anti-inflammatory mediators and appears to regulate immune function. Zheng et al. (2017) reported that vitamin D receptor deficiency in human breast and prostate cancers significantly induces cell apoptosis by regulating the Wnt / β-catenin signaling pathway. The reasons for this discrepancy in the results can be traced to the dose of vitamin D consumed, which was higher in the studies than in the present study. The findings of this study were consistent with the results of Fernandes et al. (2012) and Chen et al. Increased potential activity of antioxidant enzymes (not measured in the present study) may be practiced as one of the mechanisms for controlling apoptosis in animals. It is recommended that regular aerobic exercise be considered to reduce hepatic apoptosis. In the present study, there were limitations in the present study, including the study of animal specimens. Other limitations of this study include lack of measurement of other apoptosis-related factors. the results showed that exposure of rats to H2O2 induces apoptosis in liver tissue. regular treadmill exercise was able to attenuate this effect to a large extent, but vitamin D3 supplementation did not.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Start Page: 

    33
  • End Page: 

    43
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    157
  • Downloads: 

    186
Abstract: 

Background and Aims: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a type of diabetes in which a pregnant woman develops glucose intolerance between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation (1). This type of diabetes usually resolves after delivery, but may pose risks to the mother and baby during pregnancy or after delivery (1). The results of some studies have shown that vitamin D can play a role in insulin secretion and dysfunction (13, 14). Maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, reduced birth size, preterm delivery, and adverse outcomes such as rickets, skeletal problems, diabetes, schizophrenia, developmental disorders, fetal immune dysfunction and asthma (13). The most important known role for vitamin D is to help balance and absorb calcium; Researches have shown that almost all cells in the body have vitamin D receptors. Vitamin D plays an important role in coordinating the immune system, preventing malignancy, controlling blood pressure and regulating blood sugar. Vitamin D plays a key role in insulin secretion and function, and there is a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and the incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes (15, 16). During pregnancy, significant changes in calcium and vitamin D metabolism occur in pregnant women to provide the calcium needed for fetal ossification. About 30 grams of calcium is transferred from the mother to the fetal skeleton by the end of pregnancy, and it is estimated that the fetus can receive more than 150 micrograms per kilogram of this amount daily through active transfer from the placenta during the third trimester of pregnancy (17). Regarding the importance of calcium and vitamin D, Asemi et al. In an interventional study showed that vitamin D and calcium supplementation can have positive effects on the metabolic profile of women with GDM (18). Exercise training is one of the main pillars of blood sugar control in diabetic patients (19). Non-pharmacological interventions to control blood sugar in GDM include lifestyle changes in mothers with GDM such as increased levels of daily physical activity (1, 20) and diet (21). One of the diets that is also useful for diabetics is the diet to stop high blood pressure (DASH) (25, 26). The DASH diet is a low-calorie, low-glycemic index diet. This diet contains large amounts of dietary fiber, phytoestrogens, potassium, calcium, magnesium and folic acid, and the beneficial effects of these components on gestational diabetes have been identified (27, 28). Given the importance of vitamin D and calcium in GDM, and given that no specific research has been done to compare the effect of DASH diet and yoga exercise as two non-pharmacological intervention methods in GDM; The aim of this study was to answer the question of whether there is a difference between the effect of regular yoga exercise and DASH diet alone and in combination on the control of blood glycemic and serum levels of vitamin D and calcium in women with GDM. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 20 women with gestational diabetes were divided into three groups, yoga training (n=8), DASH diet (n=5) and training with diet (n=7). The exercise protocol consisted of eight weeks of yoga practice, three sessions per week, and each session lasted 50-60 minutes. The DASH diet was also controlled by a nutritionist. Blood samples were taken before and after eight weeks of interventions. In order to investigate the intra-and inter-group changes, respectively, t-test and covariance analysis and using SPSS software version 22 and a significant level of P 05 0. 05 was used. Results: Significant decrease was founded in vitamin D level in yoga training group (P = 0. 017) and significant increase was founded calcium level in DASH group (P = 0. 009) and significant decrease was founded in FBS in Combined group (P = 0. 019) and DASH (P = 0. 008). Fasting blood sugar reduction in the combined group was significantly higher than in the DASH group (P = 0. 045). Conclusion: In the present study, all three intervention groups reduced fasting blood sugar in women with gestational diabetes, but this blood glycemic control was higher in the combined exercise group (yoga training with DASH diet) than the DASH group, which indicates the importance of diet combination and exercise control on blood glycemic. Regarding the effect of exercise on glucose uptake, it can be said that acute exercise stimulates glucose uptake through the upregulation of exercise on GLUT4 levels in skeletal muscle membranes. This effect is independent of insulin and glucose uptake continues for several hours after the end of exercise. Second, exercise increases insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. This effect lasts for several hours after the end of exercise and is clearly insulin dependent (19, 34, 35). Also, due to the fact that the DASH diet has limited the consumption of foods with high glycemic index, it has reduced blood sugar levels and controlled gestational diabetes. On the other hand, this diet includes large amounts of dietary fiber, phytoestrogens, potassium, calcium, magnesium and folic acid, which can be shown to have beneficial effects of these components on reducing insulin resistance in gestational diabetes (27, 28). In comparison between the methods, the fasting blood glycemic level in the combined group was significantly lower than the DASH diet group alone, which indicates the role of regular exercise in glycemic control in gestational diabetes. After eight weeks of yoga practice, a significant reduction in vitamin D was observed; however, in the group comparison, no significant difference was observed between the research groups and the average of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was still in the range of vitamin D deficiency. These findings suggest that none of the clinical intervention methods are effective on vitamin D levels in women with gestational diabetes. After the research interventions, a significant increase in plasma calcium levels was observed in the DASH diet group, but there was no significant difference between the intervention groups in the study of intergroup changes. Given that vitamin D is one of the parameters associated with serum calcium (40, 43). Overall, the findings of the present study showed that if you combine yoga exercise and DASH diet, you can achieve better results in glycemic control of women with gestational diabetes. Considering that the decrease in vitamin D levels was less in DASH and combination groups than in yoga exercises, it can be said that nutritional interventions are needed to prevent vitamin D deficiency as one of the important vitamins during pregnancy in gestational diabetes.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Start Page: 

    44
  • End Page: 

    55
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    115
  • Downloads: 

    118
Abstract: 

Background and Aims: Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in all countries of the world and exercise is one of the most important clinical measures for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explain the changes in IGF1 and cardiac Akt levels in mice with myocardial infarction Aims: Despite advances in healthcare practices, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in all countries of the world. Among patients who survive myocardial infarction (MI), which is a direct result of cardiovascular disease, the extent of injury prevention depends on the size of the myocardium, which is destroyed by ischemic injury (infarct size). Therefore, it is believed that a significant reduction in the size of myocardial infarction reduces morbidity and subsequent mortality. Myocardial ischemia is caused by the cessation of blood flow, followed by the cessation of blood supply and nutrients to the heart muscle. These conditions cause specific physiological changes and a series of events in myocardial cells that if this process continues for a long time, the death of the heart muscle is inevitable. Therefore, any change, however small, in improving and increasing the life expectancy of heart patients can have a significant impact on promoting community health. Studies have shown that exercise is one of the most important clinical measures for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Physical activity not only reduces cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension and thus helps prevent heart disease, but also seems to improve the condition and functional outcomes of patients with heart disease. It does better. Cardiovascular benefits Exercise involves several factors, including important general effects on skeletal muscle, peripheral arteries, and metabolism, as well as beneficial changes within the myocardium. In the study of exercise-related signaling pathways, it has been acknowledged that physiological hypertrophy is first achieved through insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or the IGF-1-PI3K-Akt axis. IGF-1 is produced by the liver and to a lesser extent by the heart. Exercise also stimulates the hepatic secretion of IGF-1 into the bloodstream and stimulates cardiac expression of IGF-1. In heart tissue, IGF-1 binds to its tyrosine kinase receptor, IGF-1R, and activates the PI3K-Akt cascade. Protein serine threonine kinase (STK) is the main downstream stimulus of PI3k and is phosphorylated (activated) in physiological hypertrophy of the heart. The effects of Akt1 on the heart are numerous, though generally considered beneficial. These effects include: inhibiting cardiac myocyte death, improving calcium control, heart growth factor, and metabolism. In general, it can be stated, due to the various biological effects attributed to IGF-1 and also because of the wide therapeutic capacity for this factor and also due to the lack of research in which the expression of this factor to Along with the messaging pathway involved in physiological cardiac hypertrophy (Akt1) under the influence of various intensities of intermittent exercise, and finally due to the importance of health care in cardiovascular patients, the present study seeks to design an intermittent exercise protocol with intense Answers the question of whether the levels of IGF-1 and Akt in rats with myocardial infarction differ in different intensities of intermittent exercise after six weeks? Methods: The present study with the code RHC. AC. IR. REC. 1393. 28 was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shahid Rajaei Cardiovascular Training, Research, and Treatment Center. It is fundamental-developmental in terms of purpose and experimental in terms of implementation and based on the level of supervision and degree of control, it is a type of laboratory research. In this experimental study, 55, 10-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were purchased from the Pasteur Institute of Iran. During the interventions, rats were kept in three cages in each cage with free access to water and food packages, and according to the 12-hour sleep-wake cycle at the Experimental Research Center of Shahid Rajaei Heart Hospital. The room temperature was maintained in the range of 37° C, and efforts were made to maintain and work with animals in accordance with the recommendations of the Laboratory Animal Protection Act (NIH). In the present study, Direct intervention method was used to induce MI in rats in which the left-anterior descending-coronary-artery (LAD) of rats was blocked by suture. Finally, surviving rats with MI were randomly divided into four groups (6 heads): low-intensity training (LIT), moderate-intensity training (MIT), high-intensity training (HIT), and myocardial infarction and Sham. Finally, the ELISA method was used to measure the levels of Akt and IGF1 protein. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine the normality of the data and one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test at a significance level of α = 0. 05 were used to analyze the hypotheses. SPSS software version 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in the levels of IGF1 and Akt proteins between the studied groups (p≥ 0. 05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that there was no difference between the effect of different intensities of Interval Training on IGF1 and Akt proteins, therefore, in order to clarify the mechanism of the effect of different intensities of Interval Training on IGF1 and Akt proteins, more studies are needed.

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  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Start Page: 

    56
  • End Page: 

    67
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    102
  • Downloads: 

    115
Abstract: 

Background and Aims: Low back pain is usually associated with psychological, social, and biological-physical problems. As pain becomes more chronic, the role of psychological and social factors becomes more prominent than biological factors. Following the failure of medical treatments for pain, specialists turned to non-sensory aspects of pain, including psychological factors. Therefore, the use of psychological therapies became part of new therapeutic lines. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of autogenic education and emotion regulation training on pain intensity in women with chronic low back pain. Musculoskeletal disorders are one of the most common chronic health problems, which is the second leading cause of physical disability in the world that is responsible for a significant portion of health care costs and leads to detrimental effects on personal health, quality of life, job satisfaction and wasted work days. One of the most common and costly disorders, especially among women, is chronic low back pain, which is defined as an unpleasant sensory and psychological experience associated with possible or actual tissue damage. While medical interventions play an important role in reducing pain, their unpleasant side effects have limited the widespread use of drug therapies. On the other hand, some chronic pain problems are difficult to diagnose and their drug treatment has limited effectiveness. Daily life with pain can cause excessive fatigue and thus impair the quality of life of the sufferer, so psychological interventions to reduce the problems caused by chronic pain, expanded. These interventions have many effects in the field of chronic diseases and can help to relieve the pain of patients with chronic pain in addition to medication, as well as alleviate their psychological symptoms that have also been the cause of pain. The two interventions ART and AT regulate the emotions of individuals, reduce cramps and muscle tensions in patients, create a feeling of physical and mental relaxation, and reduce the symptoms of the disease modifying the mind-body relationship. AT is a psychophysiological model of psychotherapy in which the individual uses passive focus and certain combinations of mental and physical stimuli, relying on the establishment of a mind-body relationship to treat the patientchr('39')s low back pain. ART has also emerged from the integration of techniques from different approaches in a comprehensive training program consisting of 7 skills, which shows the effectiveness of clinical research and relies on the mind-body relationship to affect pain. Therefore, the present study compares the effectiveness of autogenic training and affect regulation training on pain intensity in women with chronic low back pain. Methods: The present research was semi-experimental study which used a pre-test, post-test and control group design (two experiment and one control groups). The statistical population of this study, included all women with chronic low back pain referring to the Moradi pain clinic in Tehran, in the year 2018. The sample of present study included 33 women with chronic low back pain who were selected by available sampling method and were assigned to two experiment and one control groups (11 persons per groups) by random assignment method. The inclusion criteria of the research included: female gender, being in the age range of 20-50 years, having higher education than a diploma, diagnosis of chronic low back pain by a pain specialist, achieving a score higher than 34. 52 in McGill Pain Questionnaire and continuing medication according the physician. The exclusion criteria of the research included: pregnancy or menopause, being in the age range of under 20 or upper 50 years, lack of diploma education, having any organ defect, co-occurrence with other chronic physical diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, etc. and absence of more than 1 session of group sessions. The data gathering tool was McGill Pain Questionnaire. Both experimental groups attended the sessions once a week for 12 sessions of 90 minutes, the control group did not receive any intervention from therapist. The data was analyzed by univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), in SPSSv24. Results: The mean and standard deviation of age for AT group were 40. 27± 11. 49, for ART group were 43. 55± 8. 05, and for control group were 41. 45± 7. 64. Also the mean and standard deviation of sufferance duration for AT group were 1. 91± 1. 30, for ART group were 1. 36± 0. 80, and for control group were 1. 45± 0. 82. In the field of education in AT group, %18. 2 had diploma, %72. 7 had bachelor degree, %9. 1 upper bachelor degree, in ART group, %27. 3 diploma, %18. 2 bachelor degree, %54. 5 upper bachelor degree and in control group, %45. 5 diploma, %0 bachelor degree and %54. 5 were upper than bachelor degree. Totally, 33 subjects with a mean age of 41 years and 9 months and 4 days and a standard deviation of 9 years and 4 months and 2 days participated in this study. The age range of the subjects has been extended from 25-50 years and the mean of the chronic low back pain sufferance duration was 1. 58 year with a standard deviation of 0. 708 year; the range of sufferance duration has been extended less than 1-2 years. The mean scores of pain perception and its subscales in the post-test have decreased compared to the pre-test in AT group of 22. 09 scores and in ART group of 16. 09 scores but in control group these amounts have increased slightly. Also, using MANOVA, the volume effect of the difference between the mean scores of pain perception subscales in the three groups of AT, ART and control in the two measurements in pre-test results of Pillais test showed significant changes in the collective effect of pain perception scores subscales in pre-test and post-test concerning to the AT, ART and control groups (p<0. 05) and the effect size of this differences was %44. 9. The results of ANOVA test showed significant changes in all 4 subscales of pain perception in both pre-test and post-test according to the groups of AT, ART and control (p<0. 05). The effect size of these differences for sensory perception of pain was equal to 71. 6%, for emotional perception of pain was equal to 67. 1%, for measuring the pain was 67. 8% and for various pains was 65. 6%. The data show autogenic training and affect regulation training were affective on decreasing patientschr('39') pain. Conclusion: Considering the effectiveness of the trainings, it can be said that ART intervention through techniques of emotion, muscular and respiratory relaxation, awareness without judgment, acceptance and tolerance of affects and AT intervention through autogenic relaxation using heat, weight and respiration exercises, advanced relaxation and autogenic meditation, have controlled negative emotions and closed the gate of pain by teaching cognitive strategies and led to a pain reduction in patients with chronic low back pain. Therefore, according to findings of present research, it is recommended that all specialists in health fields, apply these therapeutic models to relieve chronic pains, muscular tensions and mind-body relaxation.

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  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Start Page: 

    68
  • End Page: 

    80
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    130
  • Downloads: 

    134
Abstract: 

Background and Aims: This article is modeled on the controversy-outcome theory in the field of handball championship sports (1). By definition, controversy is a behavior to achieve a result that violates important organizational norms and threatens the well-being of an organization or its members, or both (2). According to the definition of Abdi et al. (2017), behaviors such as intimidation, resentment, and any illegal behavior aimed at achieving a goal are called controversy. In the sport of our country, it is observed that people do anything, including controversy, in order to be promoted, to achieve a result or to win. Despite the efforts of many officials, there are still people who, by creating controversy, circumvent the rules of the sport of handball, the rules of the disciplinary committee, in order to achieve their demands. Sarlak (2016) refers to such behaviors as strategies to achieve the goal (1). If the competition that leads to the result is not managed tactfully, controversy and controversy will prevail in the organization. As if today such a problem can be seen in different parts of the countrychr('39')s sports. Referees who strive for progress and promotion, coaches who strive for results, players who strive to stand out and reach higher levels, including the national team, fanatical spectators who win their beloved city team, and managers who strive to win. Holding various organizational positions engage in controversial behaviors, and players engage in controversial behaviors in order to earn a national team jersey or score points in competitions. Of course, in sports, the nature of the sport must be taken into account, handball is a very popular and exciting sport, and the personality of people who turn to any sport, for example, certainly chess. And darts are not comparable to football, handball and basketball, which are collision disciplines (4). According to Alias (2013), in sports such as football, where mobility and dynamism are high, natural early life is associated with it, and the new structure of civilization becomes ineffective for it, which also unravels (7), but with Simon (2001) research that exercise promotes some values well, but these values can also be wrong values and immoral behaviors depending on the sports environment is not consistent (8). In the contemporary world, despite the prominent cultural feature of sports and physical education, less attention has been paid to this approach and in the process of culture-building, the excellence of literature and education and the promotion of personality are less considered, Therefore, the aim of this study was to Introducing a Conceptual Framework & Code-Sub code Models to Factors Affecting on Controversy Management in Sport (Study on: Team Handball). Methods: The method was qualitative, applied in terms of purpose and exploratory. The population were handball players, coaches and referees. Sampling was performed non-randomly. Elite group consisting of 5 faculty members was formed. In order to identify data in-depth library studies, Semi-structured interviews with were used with 15 experts in sports management, behavior, sociology and psychology familiar with handball using snowball method and theoretical saturation. We used Maxquda2020 software. Results: During the results of the research, 499 open codes, 72 selected codes and 9 selected codes were identified. The validity was confirmed by experts. Conclusion: The findings of this study were consistent with the results of Previous research (19, 13-17). In this study, by analyzing various factors, we conclude that controversy is not just about attracting attention or emptying internal emotions, but is closer to corruption in the organization because it pursues a goal and that is to achieve results. This point is very common in the countrychr('39')s sports. According to the information collected by the research team, managerial factors (30. 64%), individual and cultural factors (25. 20%), socio-political factors (10. 8%), facilities and welfare (12. 78%), education and awareness raising (9. 2%) Ethnic and regional factors (4. 6%), media coverage (2%), negative emulation (2. 4%), and handball characteristics (2. 4%) play a role in controversy management. Management factors include the management of different levels of the organization, which according to the interviewees, if each plays its role properly, can be effective in reducing controversy (12). Individual factors in terms of psychological, mental fitness and physical fitness of each person have a significant impact on the level of tolerance and the way he looks at events. Political and social factors are an integral part of solving individual and organizational problems. Because many of our managerschr('39') decisions are based on political and social events, and it is no secret that solving such problems requires strong and stable management. Educating and raising the level of awareness of people about handball team sports and the attractions of this sport, its rules and regulations can lead to peace, especially for families who are aware of their childrenchr('39')s sports environment. Also, considering the facilities of the teams, unfortunately, in recent years, it has become clear that the federations, regardless of the economic situation of the teams, try to hold professional leagues, while if the welfare of the teams If the coaches, players and agents are not properly involved, the league will be eroding and will only leave destructive effects from various injuries. The security of events and sports venues should be considered a cultural and social action (18). Regional and ethnic factors may be seen in many parts of the country, but in the field of handball with zoning that has been done and handball in 8 different regions, is managed under the supervision of the Handball Federation, this issue is more visible. The role of the media in following the news of a sport is very significant, the media, especially radio and television, can play a significant role in increasing and decreasing the psychological pressure of a sport. But in the meantime, the role of those who spy negatively, people who for any reason are not able to continue a sport or have not been accepted by the system as those who are so-called poison, should not be overlooked. Spraying causes controversy and affects the minds. Many experts believe that handball is controversial due to its high popularity.

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  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Start Page: 

    81
  • End Page: 

    92
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    291
  • Downloads: 

    180
Abstract: 

Background and Aims: Beetroot juice has been shown to increase endurance and high-intensity training performance. In addition, after consuming beetroot juice supplementation, the performance of periodic exercise in recreational (non-professional) athletes also improves. Therefore, we assessed the impact of a period of BR consumption on the performance of amateur trained soccer players following high-intensity intermittent exercise. The popularity of exercise nutrition is growing exponentially among athletes to boost their athletic performance. As a result, upon the improvement of contraction / relaxation, the generation of power and strength enhances the short-term intermittent running. Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule that is capable of improving vascular function, mitochondrial respiration, glucose homeostasis, and skeletal muscle contractions. However, the consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables (NO3-), such as lettuce, spinach, and beetroot (BR) have been identified as an alternative source and precursor of NO. The consumption of NO3-and increase of NO production decrease oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, handle calcium, and increase contractile force and production capacity in type II muscle fibers, increase time to fatigue, and improve the exercise performance. BR is rich in foods such as sugar, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid. BR is a rich source of NO3-commonly consumed because it possesses high contents of betacyanin and polyphenol and it produces more NO molecules than NO salts. The ergogenic effects of NO3-rich sources were first reported in metabolic adaptations following endurance training. Athletes in team or individual sports aim to increase performance in high-intensity interval training. High-intensity exercise results in a transition from low-to high-intensity and changes in metabolic conditions. In recent years, nitrate supplementation has been shown to have a significant effect on anaerobic exercise and high-intensity interval exercise. The effect of nitrate-rich BR juice support the improvement of the performance of high-intensity intermittent exercise in team sports; however, the length of the intake period and the time interval of nitrate-rich supplementation prior to the performance of the experiment are not completely clear. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that supplementation of BR in amateur trained soccer players could improve physiological and functional parameters. Therefore, we assessed the impact of a period of BR consumption on the performance of amateur trained soccer players following high-intensity intermittent exercise. Methods: Forty-two male soccer players competing in the 2nd Iranian amateur league with the mean age of 20. 50± 0. 58, weight of 67. 14± 2. 35, body fat percent of 11. 63± 1. 44, and body mass index of 21. 34± 0. 48 voluntarily participated in the study. First off, all participants were informed about the nature of experimental procedures, including potential risks and benefits and then, received written informed consent. The experimental protocols were approved by the Ethical Committee of Shiraz University, Iran, according to Helsinki DeclarationGuidelines. Participants were asked not to take any sport or medical supplements, or any ergogenic aids during the 4-week experiment period. The current study was randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, and double-blind that investigated the effect of BR supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in soccer players. High-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed by the Yo-Yo IR1 test and Wingate test in two days. All subjects ingested beetroot juice nitrate-rich (2×70 ml/day; BR) or placebo (PLA) for six-days with seven-days of wash-out between trialsParticipants arrived at the facility 2. 5 h after ingesting the last bolus of the supplement (8: 30 A. M. ). The heart rate was continuously monitored throughout the experiment (Polar Beat, Polar Electro, Kempele, Finland). The experimental protocols were carried out at the same time in every day. Subjects were asked to arrive to the laboratory 90 min before the experiment. They were also requested to be fully hydrated, and consume their least meal at least 3 h before the initiation of the exercise test. Besides, they had to avoid strenuous exercise 36 h before the experimental trials. Before the Yo-Yo test, warm-up was performed for each participant. The Yo-Yo test was carried out on running lanes with a width of 2 m and length of 20 m. The examination consisted of repeated 2 × 20 m runs that progressively increased the speed which was controlled by the audio bleeps from an audio system. Each 20 m running was interspersed by 5 m behind the finishing line marked the running distance that is 10-s active recovery period. Immediately after the termination of the Yo-Yo test, Subjective rating of perceived exertion was carried out in accordance with the Borgchr('39')s scale ranging from 6– 20. Wingate test used for determine of power output and fatigue index. The heart rate and VO2max were measured continuously throughout the Yo-Yo test, and nitrate/nitrite plasma levels were collected prior and post of the six-days nitrate supplementation. Data are expressed as the means and standard deviation (mean ± SD). All statistical analyses were carried out by the SPSS software (version 19. 0; IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA). The Shapiro-Wilk test, Independent t-test and Pearson correlation coefficients were used. The level of statistical significance was set at p< 0. 05. Results: Compared to PLA, six-days BR supplementation increased mean power (483. 91± 23. 60 vs. 468. 77± 23. 39, p<0. 05) and low power (373. 31± 22. 03 vs. 340. 41± 22. 40, p<0. 05) and also reduced fatigue index (37. 66± 5. 66 vs. 45. 27± 7. 94; p<0. 05). High-intensity intermittent running performance (p= 0. 034), VO2max (p= 0. 043), nitrate and nitrite plasma levels (P<0. 001) were significantly improved in subjects in the BR compared with the PLA. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, it seems that 6 days of beet juice supplementation can improve the aerobic and anaerobic performance of trained football players. The main finding of this study is that a 6-day period of BR supplementation led to a marked improvement in the performance of high-intensity intermittent exercise in soccer players. Such an improvement includes a decrease in the heart rate during high-intensity intermittent running tests, as well as an increase in VO2max. We investigated the impact of a 6-day period of BR supplementation on nitrate/nitrite concentrations and performance during the speed and Yo-Yo tests in soccer players. After 6 days BR supplementation, the plasma levels of nitrate/ nitrite, peak power, mean power, low power, and performance in the Yo-Yo test were significantly increased. Also, the heart rate and fatigue index were significantly decreased in the BR compared with the PLA.

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  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Start Page: 

    93
  • End Page: 

    103
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    133
  • Downloads: 

    128
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Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Public sports can be considered as one of the most common parts in the development of sports in a society. Today, public sports have received special attention from different countries. Many scientists are trying to identify and develop predictive indicators of talented people in various sports. Before the Sydney Olympics, Australia paid a lot of attention to public sports. Providing general motor skills and training in public sports such as gymnastics and swimming and running will prepare them for future sports, physical activity, military service, and a better life in general. Public sports education in elementary school and beyond can effectively help the development of public sports in a city to learn how to participate in sports competitions. In addition, a school-based sport is a good opportunity for teachers who are normally qualified to teach life skills and science and knowledge to all children in an organized and supportive environment. Public motor skills form the basis of almost all physical activities and sports. Basically, the development of sports is related to increasing participation and promoting opportunities and benefits of participating in sports activities. Participation in sports and physical activity has a wide range of concepts such as the participation of children in games, the participation of women in sports, the participation of young people in legal sports, and ultimately the development of public sports, professions and championships. Falling behind this rising wave, it can in no way fill the gap created, and eventually the differences in productivity from the effects of exercise and motor activities will be clear. Therefore, it is very important to better understand public sports in order to identify the obstacles that stand in the way of the development of public sports. According to the definition provided by the Irish Coaching Association, each person must go through three stages of starting activities, movements and learning to play and learn before practicing the activities to win. Extensive research and materials are needed to achieve the variables affecting the development and barriers of public sports. Today, sports and people's participation in sports activities as a social phenomenon should be studied and considered. One of the most important functions of this phenomenon is its important role in creating public health. This can be clearly seen through the sport in the lives of the people involved. The purpose of this sociological study is the components of identity and its impact on public sports in the 14th district of Tehran. Methods: The statistical population in this study includes all relevant managers in sports and citizens of District 14 of Tehran. Information was collected from managers through interviews qualitatively and information from citizens of District 14 quantitatively using a researcher-made questionnaire. Statistically, there are about 650 people. The sample size was determined using the Cochran's formula, which is about 280 people, and was done by qualitative-quantitative (mixed) method. The sample size was determined using the Cochran's formula, which was about 650 people and was done by available sampling method. The data collection tool in this research is field studies and also a researcher-made questionnaire. The present research is applied-descriptive in terms of developmental purpose and descriptive-survey research in terms of data collection method. In this study, descriptive and inferential statistics including Pearson correlation coefficient and finally the structural equation modeling (SEM) method using SPSS22 software was used to present a suitable model. Results: The results of this study showed that the feeling of national pride, belief in the superiority of Iranian culture, preference of Iranian culture to sports, sense of belonging and commitment to national culture and tradition have a significant effect on the development of public sports. Conclusion: Sports can strengthen national solidarity And by creating national pride and tying the interests of different groups of society, it will cause solidarity and harmony within the country and show power in the world arena. This phenomenon, regardless of the recreational aspect and deterrents such as conflict between local, national and transnational identities, can play an important role in the development and growth of the nationalization process. In a way that governments try to strengthen and deepen the national identity by formulating sports policies and through social stimulation and enthusiasm in the leisure space, increase social trust and consequently national pride, which in itself strengthens the coexistence culture of the people of a territorial complex. It becomes. The concept of sports development is very general and can include the development of sports at all levels, public, elite, public, and so on. Sports development is a comprehensive help to people to start a sport, stay in the sport of their choice and succeed in it. The development of sport is defined by Collins as an effective opportunity, systems and structures and processes that enable individuals at all levels or specific groups or regions to participate in sports, recreation and entertainment and to perform at any level. They want to make progress. Therefore, today, the development of public sports requires planning in various fields, one of the most basic of which to avoid wasting time and money can be to identify problems in the development of public sports in cities. Identifying obstacles to the development of grassroots sports can be a great help in overcoming them and providing effective solutions to increase participation in sports activities and the development of championship sports. Undoubtedly, the educational system of any country can make a great contribution to the development of sports and recognition of talents and help the growth of public sports, but given the educational structure of the country in practice, the efficiency and effectiveness of this system is not significant. National identity transcends traditional and indigenous identities of ethnicity, tribe, and even religion. National identity is citizenship identity. The relationship of citizens in a country with the government and rulers is established not on the basis of ethnic, religious, racial and linguistic ties, but on the basis of reciprocal rights and duties; Rights and duties regulated by law and with the role of citizens. Citizens participate in the drafting, approval and monitoring of the implementation of the law by their elected representatives. National identity in a country creates strong national responsibilities and interests for its citizens, and on the contrary, ambiguity and doubt in national identity reduces commitment, interest, patriotism and responsibility. National identity is the link between all the different ethnic and cultural groups in a multi-ethnic country. Sport, while arising from the culture of coexistence and collective interests of a historical society, can also be a social matter, reviving the collective will and historical ties between a nation. At the same time, the sport itself, regardless of historical affiliation, can stimulate ethnic and national spirit by using symbols and make nations proud in international competitions and have different perceptions of their historical status. Sport can strengthen national solidarity and, by creating national pride and tying the interests of different groups of society, cause solidarity and harmony within the country and show power in the international arena. This phenomenon, regardless of the recreational aspect and deterrents such as conflict between local, national and transnational identities, can play an important role in the development and growth of the nationalization process. In a way that governments try to strengthen and deepen the national identity by formulating sports policies and through social stimulation and enthusiasm in the leisure space, increase social trust and consequently national pride, which in itself strengthens the coexistence culture of the people of a territorial complex. It becomes.

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