Providing healthy water and food in the armed forces, in addition to having a direct impact on the physical and mental health of the forces, is one of the concerns of commanders and managers. The transfer and relocation of forces in various missions and operations, especially in the Navy, emphasize the importance of water and food management. Today, nanotechnology with various applications in the field of water and food resource management has also come to the aid of the defense industry. However, this technology has been used in other fields of the Navy, such as nanofibers in antibacterial diving suits, self-cleaning suits, fire-resistant suits, as well as equipment, boat hulls as lightweight and corrosion-resistant coatings, it also has many applications, but in this review, we will have a glimpse of the use of this technology in providing healthy water and food for the forces in critical conditions at sea. In the past, the goals of drinking water purifiers were to reduce suspended solids and eliminate live pathogens in water, which could be achieved by conventional filtration and disinfection methods. However, with increasing concentrations of particulate matter, nitrogen compounds, organic and mineral matter, and heavy metals in water sources, conventional methods do not meet the needs of consumers and it is necessary to use relatively new processes in purifiers.