Background: In addition to physical adaptation and psychosocial adjustment to chronic renal disease, hemodialysis (HD) patients must also adapt to dialysis therapy plan.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of Roy’s adaptation model-based patient education on adaptation of HD patients.Patients and Methods: This study is a semi-experimental research that was conducted with the participation of all patients with end-stage renal disease referred to the dialysis unit of Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Yasuj city, 2010. A total of 59 HD patients were randomly allocated to two groups of test and control. Data were collected by a questionnaire based on the Roy’s adaptation Model (RAM). Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were approved. Patient education was determined by eight one-hour sessions over eight weeks. At the end of the education plan, the patients were given an educational booklet containing the main points of self-care for HD patients. The effectiveness of education plan was assessed two months after plan completion and data were compared with the pre-education scores. All analyses were conducted using the SPSS software (version 16) through descriptive and inferential statistics including correlation, t-test, and ANOVA and ANCOVA tests.Results: The results showed significant differences in the mean scores of physiological and self-concept models between the test and control groups (P=0.01 and P=0.03 respectively). Also a statistical difference (P=0.04) was observed in the mean scores of the role function mode of both groups. There was no significant difference in the mean scores of interdependence modes between the two groups.Conclusions: RAM based patient education could improve the patients’ adaptation in physiologic and self-concept modes. In addition to suggesting further research in this area, nurses are recommended to pay more attention in applying RAM in dialysis centers.