Value addition in the poplar wood Value chain has great economic effects on poplar farmers and has a fundamental role in sustainable supplying of required cellulosic materials for industries in long-term. The purpose of this study was to analyze the Value chain of poplar and use the results to improve poplar wood Value chain. In order to determine the poplar Value chain, Porter's Value chain analysis framework was used. The statistical society was consisted of 76 experts to identify poplar wood Value who were active in different parts of the Value chain. Value chain analysis was performed using the location quotient index. With this method, the local economic conditions of poplar wood Value chain were evaluated to the global economic conditions poplar wood Value chain in Iran. With the help of experts and using a questionnaire, important industries that use poplar wood as a raw material were determined. The maximum poplar Value chain location quotient index belonged to Golestan (2.72) and the minimum poplar Value chain location quotient index belonged to Hormozgan (0.24). Golestan, Guilan and Mazandaran provinces with location quotient indexes of 2.72, 2.19 and 2.03, respectively, had the highest location quotient index compared to other provinces. The location quotient index of poplar wood processing in Zanjan, West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan and Kurdistan which are major manufacturers of poplar wood, were 0.36, 0.47 0.65 and 0.84, respectively.