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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
اسکوپوس
دانشگاه غیر انتفاعی مهر اروند
ریسرچگیت
strs
Author(s): 

AZHAND Y.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    38
  • Pages: 

    5-13
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    1
  • Views: 

    2774
  • Downloads: 

    129
Abstract: 

The Iranian world has a well-established Tradition of images that goes back to antiquity. The structure relation between text and image become increasingly intricate in illustrated manuscripts, at least from the middle of fourteenth century onwards. These links can be observed through the composition and layout of the paintings. These relations seem to be expressed in some Persian poetical texts. It would be interesting to know if this relationship between painting and text found during the classical period of Persian painting had some theoretical basis. The Theory knows as the «seven principles of painting» can throw some light on the subject. Although probably drawing on an earlier literary tradition, this theory appeared in Safavid Iran, and this theory represented an attempt to link painting to calligraphy in order to give the former some sort of legitimacy in Islamic Art. The study of such a theory can through some light on the relations which existed between calligraphy and painting. Some technical aspects will also be discussed through the study of the seven principles of painting and related terminology. These seven princeples apear in a number of texts on the art,such as Abdi Beg Shirazi's Poem, Dust Mohammad's Preface to Bahram Mirza Album, Qutb AI-Din Mohammad Qissakhan's Preface to Shah Tahmasp Album, Qadi Ahmad's Gulistan-i hunar and Sadiqi Beg's Canon. The Historical Circum-stances which made the formulation of this theory will be also considered. The earliest reference to seven principles of painting seems to have been made by Abdi Beg Shirazi in his Rowzat al-sifat, without naming them. But Qutb ai-Din Muhammad Qissakhvan names them in his preface to Album «As in calligraphy, which has six styles, in this technique [i.e, painting] seven styles are to be found: Islami, Khata'i, Farangi, Fassali, Abr, Daq ,[VAQ], Girih.» The list given by Sadigi Beg is slightly different: Islimi, Khatai, Abr, VAQ, Nilufar, Farangi, Band-l rumi. Qadi Ahmad gives almost the same list as Qutb al-Din. VAQ in his list to be in sixth styles of Persian Painting. All the operations described by these authors seem to deal with book painting and bookmaking. But this should be noted that the seven principles of painting were not limited to bookmaking. The most spectacular and earliest painting which decorate the borders of Persian manuscript pages are something of an enigma. The convention of elaborate border paintings which included human figures did not re-emerge until the early 12th century. The small paintings of such incidents as warriors fighting, Khusraw watching Shirin bathing or Majnun in the desert, which occur in the borders of pages in the Iskandar Sultan miscellany, are far outnumbered by geometric and Islimi motifs which occur in many different combinations of design and color. They include what is probably the earliest example of an Islimi bearing human and animal heads, the VAQ design, so-called after the mystical tree which hung with heads in Place of fruit. The variety and style of VAQ painting, as sixth principle of Persian painting, is discuss in this article.

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Author(s): 

TAHERI ALIREZA

Journal: 

BAGH-E NAZAR

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2012
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    19
  • Pages: 

    43-54
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    5040
  • Downloads: 

    1199
Abstract: 

In some communities, tree had been revered and worshiped. Tree in its oldest vision is a giant cosmic tree, which is the symbol of the universe and Creation. With regards to the close relationship between the tree and human life, many communities have attributed a sense of sanctity to the tree.The relationship between the man, the tree and its holiness was in a way that people in some communities believed man was born from the tree. This belief affected a part of the ritual, magic and aesthetic ceremonies of some nations. On the other hand, in some images, this is the tree which has grown out of the human body.The Talking tree and Wak Wak tree are instances of legendary trees which have entered into the Islamic art and culture.The different forms of illustrations of Wak Wak which have been drawn by Iranian painters depict the blend of the decorative and imaginative compositions in a beautiful manner. In this article, we aim to find out answers to the following questions:1- What is the similarity between the tree and the man in the beliefs and legends of different nations?2- What is the relationship between the sacred tree, the tree of life, Talking tree, and Wak Wak’s forms?Hypothesis: The common capabilities of man and tree can be mentioned as fertility, growth and procreation. Tree has been posed as a symbol of fertility and procreation besides the man, thus there exists a close relationship between these two creatures, which has led to the creation of extraordinary myths. With regard to this issue, the sacred tree, the tree of life, the talking tree and the Wak Wak tree with the human and animal fruits have resulted into the formation of Wak Wak through a process.This research aims to understand the relationship between the tree and human thoughts as well as the public beliefs reflected in fictions and various forms of arts.It may be interesting to note that few studies have been carried out in this field in Iran and they mostly described Wak Wak’s forms.

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Author(s): 

AHMADI RAHMAN | Sheykhi Behnam

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    11
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Pages: 

    30-37
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    124922
  • Downloads: 

    76723
Abstract: 

In this paper, the recovery of vanadium from the secondary tail deposits of iron ore by salt roasting-alkaline leaching and solvent extraction has been investigated. To extract the vanadium, after the characterizations studies (XRF, SEM, and EPMA analyzes), preliminary leaching was performed using HCl to reduce lime. Subsequently, the solid that was gained from this stage was put in the oven for palletizing and salt roasting (sodium carbonate) at the temperature of 850° C. This sample was leached in the presence of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), under certain conditions. Solvent extraction experiments were carried out on the solution of carbonated leaching under different conditions. According to SEM studies, the dominant are calcium, vanadium, and phosphorus in the sample. The percentage of Vanadium (V), according to EPMA results in the 20 selected points, was determined as 0. 65%. XRF analysis showed that V2O5 and CaO contents of sample were 2. 04% and 51. 72%, respectively. Lime was reduced to 32. 59% after initial leaching with HCl. The carbonate leaching resulted in a total recovery of 93. 46% at 85 ° C for 60 minutes and with 40 g /l of sodium bicarbonate. In addition, under the optimum conditions of pH=6, the ratio VAQ/Vorg=1 and the organic phase concentration of 0. 5 M using the anionic Aliquat 336 extractant, Vanadium can be recovered effectively (extraction efficiency=97%) from alkaline leaching solution in the form of decavanadate or and the anions in the form of or in one stage.

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گارگاه ها آموزشی
Author(s): 

AZHAND YAGHOUB

Journal: 

NEGAREH

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    4
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Pages: 

    16-29
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    2219
  • Downloads: 

    129
Abstract: 

The Iranian world has a well-established Tradition of images that goes back to anitiquity. The structure relation between text and image become increasingly intricate in illustrated manuscripts, at least from the middle of forteenth century onwards. These links can be observed through the composition and layout of the paintings. These relations seem to be expressed in some Persian poetical texts. It would be interesting to know if this relationship between painting and text found during the classical period of Persian painting had some theoretical basis. The Theory know as the "seven principles of painting" can throw some light on the subject. Although probably drawing on an earlier litrary tradition , this theory appeared in Safavid Iran, and this theory represented an attempt to link painting to calligraphy in order to give the former some sort of legitimacy in Islamic Art. The study of such a theory can through some light on the relations which existed between calligraphy and painting. Some technical aspects will also be discussed through the study of the seven principles of painting and related terminolog. These seven princeples apear in a number of texts on the art, such as Abdi Beg Shirazi’s Poem, Dust Mohammad’s Preface to Bahram Mirza Album, Qutb Al-Din Mohammad Qissakhan’s Preface to Shah Tahmasp Album, Qadi Ahmad’s Gulistan-i hunar and Sadiqi Beg’s Canon. The Historical Circumstances which made the formulation of this theory will be also considered .The earliest referece to seven principles of painting seems to have been made by Abdi Beg Shirazi in his Rowzat al-sifat, without naming them.But Qutb al-Din Muhammad Qissakhvan names them in his preface to Album: "As in calligraphy , which has six styles, in this technique (i.e, painting) seven styles are to be found: Islami, Khata’i, Farangi, Fassali, Abr, Daq, [VAQ], Girih." The list given by Sadigi Beg is slightly different: Islimi, Khatai, Abr , VAQ, Nilufar, Farangi, Band-I rumi.Qadi Ahmad gives almost the same list as Qutb al-Din.Khatai in his list to be in second styles of Persian Painting. All the operations described by these authors seem to deal with book painting and bookmaking. But this should be noted that the seven principles of painting were not limited to bookmaking. The most spectacular and earliest painting which decorate the borders of Persian manuscript pages are something of an enigma. Border paintings demonstrate to the full the Iranian love of nature and also the way in which the early 13th century Chinese elements had become totally absorbed. Corn-poppy, lotus motif and jujube were all borrowed from Chinese art and called Khatai. In this article the variety and style of Khatai motives in Persian art were studied.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2015
  • Volume: 

    6
  • Issue: 

    20
  • Pages: 

    75-96
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    1685
  • Downloads: 

    1133
Abstract: 

Most traditional motifs have rooted in the cultures, religious be lifes or mythological stories which are implemented on a variety of synthetic arts by passing through the filter of the designers’ minds. Talking tree is an inscription that has been created from the combination of human and animal forms with plant motifs. In most books written by Muslim geographers it has been referred to tree or is land of VAQ the eastern regions such as China and India. However, some researchers believe that after the conquest of part of India by Ghaznavi rulers, this inscription has been entered into the decorative arts of Iran due to the Iranian scholarssuch as Abu Rayhan Biruni and Abolghasem Ferdowsi, since with the arrival of Islam to Iran and portrait painting sanction, the traditional motifs designer shave been looking for a way to display the human and animal forms. The first time talking tree was used in metal working art in 6 and 7centuries AH/ 12 and 13 centuries AD. The main research question is “How the talking tree has been used in the middle ages metal works? The aim of this study is to seed if ferent types of talking tree in metal working art in the middle ages. The methodology in this articleis descriptive – analytical and the data collection method is also library and attributive research. After the classification and analysis of the existing works, it can be said that the inscription of tree and talking have rooted in 6 and 7centuries AH /12 and 13 centuries AD in the decorative arts of India and has been entered to the decorative art of Iran by Khorasani artists.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    2 (64)
  • Pages: 

    56-66
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    1581
  • Downloads: 

    468
Abstract: 

The extraction and concentration of rare earths from leach liquor of apatite concentrate of central Iran were investigated using combined precipitation and solvent extraction methods. Precipitation was carried out to remove undesirable ions and solvent extraction method using tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) as an extractant was employed to separate and concentrate rare earth elements. The XRD studies demonstrated that fluro-apatite, ancrite and calcite are the comprising minerals in the examined mica (apatite) and fluro-apatite is the predominant mineral. The amount of rare earth element-oxides including Y, Ce, La, Pr and Nd were determined by means of X-ray florescence (XRF) analysis. The other chemical composition of apatite consists of: SiO2, CaO, Fe2O3 and P2O5. First, acid leaching operation was carried out by using nitric acid. The analytical investigation of the obtained leach liquor indicated that interfering ions include: Fe (II), Mg (II), Ca (II), S (IV), P (V) and F (I). The precipitation studies confirmed that the process was rapid and highly efficient to remove the interfering ions without removing rare earth elements. The effect of different variables such as extractant concentration, nitric acide concentration, temperature, contact time and Vorg./VAQ. were investigated and the optimum conditions for separation of lanthanides by TBP were determined. Selective stripping of lanthanides from the loaded organic phase were studied using nitric acid. The separation of rare earths by TBP was observed to be significant and more than 90 percent of rare earth elements were extracted. The thermodynamic functions of lanthanides extraction process have been calculated.

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