Objective: This research pursues two main objectives: 1) designing an integrated system for evaluating sustainable performance with an emphasis on the main executive processes of the cement supply chain, and 2) identifying the position and role of the criteria of this system in interaction with each other. Methods: Achieving these goals in Sepahan Cement Company (SCC) is pursued in two phases. First, the supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model is used to design an integrated framework for evaluating the sustainable performance of the cement supply chain (CSC). Second, interpretive-structural modeling (ISM) and MICMAC analysis are used to analyze the position and role of sustainable performance criteria in CSC main processes. Results: In total, 16 environmental criteria, 10 economic criteria, and 4 social criteria were identified. The contribution of the executive processes of sourcing, manufacturing, delivery, and return of the cement supply chain from these criteria were 11, 15, 7, and 6 criteria, respectively. In each process, key and effective criteria that played a fundamental role in promoting process sustainability were identified. Conclusion: Not all SCC processes play the same role in improving various aspects of sustainability (society, environment, economy). Identifying the key and effective metrics of each process provides managers and policymakers with an appropriate perspective on the preparation of sustainability improvement projects. Despite the presence of economic criteria in all four executive processes of the cement supply chain, the effectiveness of these criteria is not the same in all processes. Therefore, the preferences of decisionmakers can be different regarding the prioritization of projects to improve the sustainability of SCC.