Background: Febrile Convulsion is the most common convulsive disorder in children, occurring in 2 to 4% of the pediatric population and recurring in 30-50% of cases. Considering the varying RECURRENCE rates reported, this study was conducted at the pediatric ward of the Shahid Beheshti General Hospital, between 2000-2001 to determine the frequency of RECURRENCE and related risk factors in children presenting with their first episode of febrile convulsion.Materials & Methods: A two–year cohort study was performed on 50 children presenting with the first attack of febrile convulsion. Patient demographic data including age, sex, type and duration of seizure, family history of febrile seizure or epilepsy and the interval between fever onset and occurrence of seizure were recorded in questionnaires. Those patients, for whom prophylactic medication was not administered, were followed at three–month intervals for up to one year. Findings were statistically analyzed using Fisher’s exact test.Results: RECURRENCE was observed in twelve children (24%) out of the fifty, being most common in patients aged less than one year (54.4%). RECURRENCE rates among children with a positive family history of febrile convulsion, presence of complex febrile seizure and positive family history of epilepsy were 42.1%, 42.8% and 25% respectively. From among those children with a “less than one hour” interval between fever onset and occurrence of seizure, RECURRENCE occurred in 43-7% of cases, while in those with a “more than one hour interval”, 14.7% experienced RECURRENCE.Conclusion: RECURRENCE rates are increased by certain factors including age-below one year-, positive family history of febrile convulsion, and a “less than one hour” interval between time of fever onset and seizure occurrence.