Background & Objectives: Spleen largest lymphoid organ in the body and its role is blood filtering, strengthen the immune system, storage and hematopoiesis. Trauma, congenital pathologic is the indications of splenectomy. The aim of this study was evaluation 10 years splenectomy indications in Children's Hospital of Tabriz.Material and Methods: In a retrospective and descriptive study that performed on the children who underwent splenectomy in Tabriz Children's Hospital, the indications of splenectomy in these children evaluated.Results: 34 of studied children were boys and 35 of studied children were girls. Mean age of boy children was 99.20 ± 42.77 months and the mean age of girl children was 125.42 ± 35.24 (P=0.007). Major beta-talassemia in 23 cases was the most common indication for splenectomy in studied children. Spleen size in 22 children was normal and in 47 children spleen size was great. Platelet drop in two cases, port vein thrombosis in 3 cases, heard failure in two cases, sepsis, recurrent meningitis, sepsis and CVA in one of the studied children were postoperative complications in children underwent for splenectomy. Only seven cases of studied children had died after surgery that two cases of mortality causes was heart failure due to talassemia. In our study, trauma in 3 cases (4.34%) of the studied children was the splenectomy indications that one of these children had died.Conclusion: Major beta-talassemia, hereditary spherocitosis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura were the most common causes of spelenctomy in the studied children and in our study, 5 of children with talassemia were died that 2 causes was heart failure due to talassemia, 2 cases due to port vein thrombosis and one case due to CVA. Postoperative complication rate was 23.18% and risk of infection and sepsis in our study was 3.07% and also the mortality rate in our study was 10.1%.