This work focuses on the dynamical behavior of carbon nanotubes, including vibration, wave propagation and fluid-structure interaction. In the present research, transverse vibration of nano fluid conveying carbon nanotubes is investigated. To this end, based on the nonlocal and strain-inertia gradient continuum elasticity theories and by using rod and Euler-Bernoulli beam models, the system’s dynamical behavior is modeled and then, the governing equation of motion is solved and discretized by applying the weighted-residual Galerkin approximate method. Moreover, effect of considering nano-scale fluid flowing through the nanotube, the boundary conditions, the different elastic mediums and the van der Walls interaction between the layers of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the natural frequencies, critical velocities and stability of the system are considered. The results show that the passing fluid flow and the axially moving of nanotube decrease the system’s natural frequencies especially for nanotubes with large internal radius and in high fluid flow and axially moving speeds of nanotube. In addition, it is observed that the natural frequencies and stability of the system strongly depend on the small-scale parameter (nano-scale), mainly in the longitudinal vibration.