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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
اسکوپوس
دانشگاه غیر انتفاعی مهر اروند
ریسرچگیت
strs
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2008
  • Volume: 

    27
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Pages: 

    29-34
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    910
  • Views: 

    85644
  • Downloads: 

    41540
Abstract: 

NANOscale science and technology has today mainly focused on the fabrication of NANO devices. In this paper, we study the use of LITHOGRAPHY process to build the desired NANOstructures directly. NANOLITHOGRAPHY on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) surface is carried out by using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) equipped with silicon tip, in contact mode. The analysis of the results shows that the depth of scratches increases with the increase of applied normal force. The scanning velocity is also shown to influence the AFM patterning process. As the scanning velocity increases, the scratch depth decreases. The influence of time and number of scratching cycles is also investigated.

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Author(s): 

SADEGH HASSANI S. | SOBAT Z.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    1
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Pages: 

    159-175
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    611
  • Views: 

    141006
  • Downloads: 

    35766
Abstract: 

The Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs) based lithographic techniques have been demonstrated as an extremely capable patterning tool. Manipulating surfaces, creating atomic assembly, fabricating chemical patterns, imaging topography and characterizing various mechanical properties of materials in NANOmeter regime are enabled by this technique. In this paper, a qualified overview of diverse lithographical methods mostly based on making NANO-structures is presented.

Yearly Impact:

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Author(s): 

Afzaltousi Effatolsadat

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Pages: 

    37-46
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    753
  • Downloads: 

    473
Abstract: 

Qajar era coincided with influence of west culture, art and industrial inventions to Iran. Some of these events derived from political exchanges, and inlet of new inventions and industries like printing devices, photography camera etc. and brought a considerable effect on Iranian traditional art. LITHOGRAPHY devices entered Iran after lead printing and was among industries that transferred the book designing practices to new emerging printing industry and changed it. In this paper, we try to compare two documents from Qajar era. One manuscript, and another LITHOGRAPHY oeuvre and both are related to first decade of 20th century, layout practices in the transition from manual version to lithographic version are discussed. The author assumes that the artists involved in the printing at Qajar era, in addition to transition from layout traditions of manual versions, they transferred the image interests and Qajar ornaments to lithographic printing. The most important achievement of this era is stereotype of the idea and political goals and interest to symbolic images. Therefore LITHOGRAPHY had effected on the Qajar layout meanwhile by making stereotype from manuscript and traditional bookmaking too. The ornamentations of flower, leaves and arabesque designs, and images of crown, king, angel and geometrical divisions common in manuscripts and some written ornaments such as stamp assumed in the form of image stereotype in lithographic books and emerged in governmental documents by prevalence of LITHOGRAPHY. These stereotypes have their origin in ancient era and old convictions and turned into symbol of culture and Iran history in Qajar era. In this paper, layout patterns and its ornaments have been analyzed in the transition from manual version which led to production of Qajar image stereotypes. This research is carried out in comparative and analytical methods, on the remained and available documents from the Qajar Age, with purpose of understanding the changes of Book Layout Principals, the changes which had been made on traditional methods since the Qajar age until contemporary age. For Understanding the method and style of design and Layout in Qajar era, from traditional style in transition to the contemporary time, by Studying Two Qajar era Documents by Approach of Influence of Printing on Traditional Layout and Establishing Image Stereotype. Given the influences of LITHOGRAPHY, it seems that one of the achievements of layout design in this era is creating cliché s and symbolic figurative templates that represent people and political and governmental interests and taste and transferred them to contemporary age. A lots of ornaments have been taken from manuscripts such as panels and borders and some of them depended to calligraphy art. Almost cliché s was effected from Sasanian period with concepts of power, for example Crown of kings, another of them pointed to power of God like angels or sun. The most achievement of stereotyping in Qajar makes connection within culture and politics in the other hand within Government and people, with effect from LITHOGRAPHY publication. In this way lithograph had great effect to nationality as a intermediary of culture of pass time.

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گارگاه ها آموزشی
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    22
  • Issue: 

    1 (85)
  • Pages: 

    4-27
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    574
  • Downloads: 

    262
Abstract: 

Objective: The similarity of the LITHOGRAPHY to the manuscripts in terms of appearance and manner of writing is far more than the similarity to printed books, for example illumination and decorations, margins, notes of ownership and endowment, stamps, the name of the scribe at the end of the book, are examples of similarity to manuscripts and lithographs. For this reason, the catalogers of LITHOGRAPHY are trying to express the details of each bibliographic and codicology information in the same way as the manuscripts in the catalogs. Due to the lack of fixed principles and rules of standardized cataloging of LITHOGRAPHY that are accepted by all catalogers, catalogs and worksheets of LITHOGRAPHY books in libraries are not monotonous. In fact, manuscripts, as the written legacy of the past are highly contributive in identifying the culture, civilization, and the ancient sciences, always considered by scholars of all disciplines. These precious and rich resources can be viewed in different perspectives like history, art, library and information science, sociology, etc. Form a Library and Information Science perspective, this study attempts to explore the types of manuscripts and LITHOGRAPHY in large libraries of Iran in terms of cataloguing, and present a unified common model for them. Methodology: In this research, descriptive-analytic method has been used and the data collection tool was a checklist. It attempts to explain the current status of cataloging of manuscripts and LITHOGRAPHY in five major libraries: Astan Qods library, National library, Marashi Najafi library, Central library of Tehran University, and the Islamic Consultative Assembly library. Findings: Given that the needs of the researchers are more diverse and more complex every day, it need to be answered review in the cataloging of manuscripts and LITHOGRAPHY in Iran for Design and compilation of National Standard WorkSheet. The most important reasons for the formation of the idea of designing a unitary pattern for the same processing and organizing of LITHOGRAPHY and manuscripts are: 1. Lots of similarity to the books of LITHOGRAPHY with manuscripts (with 76. 5% share of the elements of worksheet of cataloging the manuscripts and lithographs); 2. Old and worthy of these two types of materials and their maintenance in the same storage in most libraries in terms of their special preservation and conservation; and 3. The need for more libraries to focus on LITHOGRAPHY books, similar to manuscripts, with the uniformity of their cataloging. So, the unifying manuscript and rare resource cataloging practices is possible. Conclusion: Because of the nature of the research of the manuscripts and lithographs of various aspects, it is necessary that the information items of each book be recorded in their catalogs in order to We do not waste any data at the time of retrieval, and the end user will be easily guided to the desired text. In this research, a common cataloging worksheet of manuscript and LITHOGRAPHY including 82 items was proposed to create a common cataloging model for the libraries. In this proposed model, we have tried to provide the most information elements for the common cataloging of manuscripts and lithographs.

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Author(s): 

DAVIS Z.J. | ABADAL G. | HANSEN O.

Journal: 

ULTRAMICROSCOPY

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2003
  • Volume: 

    97
  • Issue: 

    1-4
  • Pages: 

    467-472
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    470
  • Views: 

    27978
  • Downloads: 

    30995
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Yearly Impact:

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2017
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Pages: 

    57-70
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    1288
  • Downloads: 

    1038
Abstract: 

Qajar era is the time of conflict between tradition and modernity. Iran's relations with other countries and the arrival of inventions such as photography contributed much to the progress in the field of arts and culture of this country. Through portraying the real, existing facts, photography is the most important representative of the country’ s modernity during this epoch of time. Photography in Iran was much welcomed and supported by the court artists and particularly the King himself to the extent that it made possible the review of many photographs taken by Naser ad-Din Shah Qajar and his fellow photographers. Many photographers worked in different fields with one of their favorite subjects being making photographs of prominent political figures. Taking note of human beings and illustrating figures became popular during the Qajar period and at this point, many painters and designers utilized the benefits that photography provided. Photo turned into an efficient means of portraying the realities of the face and body and created a new style of art. The stable nature of photos provided the time required for the exact simulation of the subject individual and gave the artist free hand to more precisely illustrate and attend to details. Losing its ages-old identity, the traditional Persian art emerged in a more modern way in some works of painting and LITHOGRAPHY in this specific era. It was in the artworks of this period that shading and perspective as well as depiction of human subjects and real scenes in paintings and prints drew near to those of the Western styles. The invention of photography significantly influenced the art of painting and printing of books and newspapers and, of course, established a new style of art such as decoration in photography. Perhaps such result would have not been achieved without the intervention of photography and the accurate and detailed replication of the appearance of the subjects would have been impossible. The fact that the reproduction of human dispositions and simulation of characters in paintings and works of LITHOGRAPHY became so accurate indicates the ability of the illustrators to use photographs as a tool in creating their works. Studying the surviving documents and images of the Qajar era draws the attention towards the popularity of photography because so many works along with their photos have remained to date. Even in some cases, a single picture was used to create several works of art (painting or LITHOGRAPHY). In some other cases, the teachers painted the faces and the students were given the task to do the rest of the job. In paintings and lithographs (of faces and figures), the court men and the king were depicted more than ordinary people which well points out that art was at the disposal of the royalty. The artist of the time was not that free to choose his subjects, but was allowed to follow his own imagination to design parts of the pictures such as the details of the outfits, background and even coloring. Qajar Art is the art of the royalty wherein to satisfy the taste of the court men, the lithographers and painters created artworks to portray the royal splendor. With the greatest meticulousness and delicacy, the artists attended to all the details of the picture and recreated them in the best and most natural way in their artworks. Such precision could be observed in figure paintings or in ‘ Sharaf’ and ‘ Sherafat’ newspapers. Therefore, having made its way through to Iranian art, photography left a profound impact on illustrating the pictures of the nobility and later on the ordinary men. The results of the studies conducted indicated that photo, in addition to affecting the simulation of portraits, was the founder of verisimilitude in the works of later artists.

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strs
Author(s): 

NOROUZI A.R. | TAHMASEBPOUR M.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    9
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Pages: 

    75-80
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    73955
  • Downloads: 

    31978
Abstract: 

With the development of micro and NANOtechnology, machining methods at micro and NANOscale have now become interesting research topics. One of the recently-proposed methods for sub-micron machining, especially NANOmachining, is dynamic plowing LITHOGRAPHY (DPL) method. In this method an oscillating tip is used for machining soft materials such as polymers. The geometry of the oscillating beam and its vibrational properties are the most important parameters in this NANOmachining process. In this study, effects of the AFM beam geometry on its stiffness coefficient, resonant frequency, beam stability, and the maximum stress created in the beam structure were investigated for 12 different general shapes using the finite element method. The obtained results indicate that circular and square membranes are the most favourable AFM cantilever geometries because these structures provide higher machining force and speed; while for noisy conditions and environments, straight and V-shaped beams are recommended (because of their higher stability factor) for the DPL NANOmachining process.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2008
  • Volume: 

    23
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Pages: 

    94-98
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    426
  • Views: 

    17788
  • Downloads: 

    22549
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Yearly Impact:

View 17788

Download 22549 Citation 426 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2020
  • Volume: 

    10
  • Issue: 

    3 (22)
  • Pages: 

    17-34
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    284
  • Downloads: 

    193
Abstract: 

In this study, we surveyed the possibility of NANOmeter scale LITHOGRAPHY in ambient condition using a scanning tunneling microscope. Optimized parameters for this purpose have been determined. The study will be hopefully an initiative step toward further progress in manufacturing NANO-bio chips and NANO-bio electromechanical systems utilized for diagnosis and treatment purposes in medical areas. Tests showed that the scanning tunneling microscope LITHOGRAPHY yielded the same result in each test and thus it was reproducible. Using STM microscopy, NANOstructures were first created in the form of protruding points on the surface. Then we created linear structures, more complex forms, and finally we were able to write some words. NANOstructures were created on gold surfaces by tungsten, gold, platinum-palladium tips. It is found that the voltage used in LITHOGRAPHY is effective on creating NANOstructures, and also on the size of NANOstructures, so that with increasing voltage, the size of NANOstructures increases too. The speed of tip is also another important factor that can affect NANOstructures size and their continuity. Time interval between consecutive pulses influences on the NANOstructures integration and its value should be specified based on conditions and purposes of LITHOGRAPHY. The size of NANOstructures ranged between 20 and 150 nm. Tip geometry, humidity and temperature are also likely to be influential factors that require further studies to investigate their effects.

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Author(s): 

Shekofteh a. | AHMADI H. | YAZDI M.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2018
  • Volume: 

    12
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Pages: 

    1-12
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    651
  • Downloads: 

    270
Abstract: 

The materials that are now being used in the conservation of historic and cultural heritage are originally available in the market of industry. Recently, some of the materials are improved in the fields of conservation of heritage and they are so common in the consolidation of artificial objects or monuments. The aim of the study is identification of the proper material for consolidation of beige stone against environmental factors. Thus, three materials were chosen from the recent products which are more compatible with composition of limestone. Stone specimens were consolidated with NANO Estel (NANOstructure silicon dioxide SiO2 dispersion in water), NANO Lime (Ca(OH)2) (NANO-lime dispersion in isopropyl alcohol), and Dibasic ammonium phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4) well known as HAP method. Samples were characterized by FE-SEM and tested by Microdrilling resistance. The porosity also was analyzed by MIP. The results show NANO-lime has the lowest surface effectiveness which barely changed the physical properties of the stone in comparison with the others. In the case of covering, in both Estel and HAP, some microcracks (with branch and net pattern) were observed on the layer above substrate, in contrast, NANO-lime made a homogeneous layer. Also, NANO-lime treatment caused 6% reduction of the porosity which had the most effectiveness on stone porosity. J. Color Sci. Tech. 12(2018), 1-12© . Institute for Color Science and Technology.

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