By using MOLECULAR farming, plants are used as a bio-reactor for producing low cost recombinant proteins. This technology had been successful in the production of primary products in the commercial field. Other recombinant products are in final steps of production. In the last 10 years, up to 100 different recombinant proteins are produced in transgenic plants. Plants have many advantages in comparison with other expression systems, especially in economic, safety, operations and production aspects. However, there are some problems for using plants as a bio-reactor with the goal of recombinant proteins production that should be considered. Some of these problems are: the quality of final product, extraction and the processing of plant derived pharmaceutical macromolecules and bio-safety. In this study, we will review the global view of MOLECULAR farming and some successful cases in Iran. During 8 years of research in the field of MOLECULAR farming in Iran, especially in Tarbiat Modarres University, different kinds of recombinant proteins such as VHH single domain antibody in tobacco and canola and tPA protein in tobacco were expressed. The human gamma interferon in canola and tobacco and also the luciferase enzyme in tobacco, African violet and canola were produced. Also, useful projects are executed in the field of transplastomic plants in order to express the mentioned genes in the chloroplast. In transferring the human pro-insulin gene to chloroplast genome, this gene was bombarded onto tobacco leaf ex-plants using a particle delivery system. Leaf ex-plants produced adventitious shoots when cultured on shoot-inducing medium containing spectinomycin. The results of peR confirmed that the pro-insulin gene was present in the chloroplast genome.