Background: Sialic acid (SA) is presented in all cells membrane of vertebrates, and its level in the human brain is much higher than other body tissues. Studies have shown that, in addition to oxidative stress, increasing the amount of SA can also lead to the development of neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of SA on MALONDIALDEHYDE (MDA) production levels, as a lipid peroxidation product, in human astroglia. Methods: The human astroglias were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and cells were treated with different doses of SA. MDA was measured using thiobarbituric acid (TBA) protocol, and the results were analyzed using SPSS software. Findings: The production of MDA in treated cells with 200, 500, and 1000 μ g/ml of SA significantly increased compared to the control group. It also significantly increased when the cells were treated with 200 μ g/ml of SA at 12, 16, and 24 hours incubation. Conclusion: Many studies have been conducted on neurological disorders; however their mechanism of occurrence has not yet been fully elucidated. With regard to the role of SA in inflammation, our results suggest that SA can cause pathological conditions and oxidative stress followed by MDA elevation; which is effective in the development of neurological disorders like Alzheimer's. The role of SA and its effects need further studies.