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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
اسکوپوس
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
ریسرچگیت
strs
Author(s): 

ALIPOUR NILOUFAR

Journal: 

NEGAREH

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    6
  • Issue: 

    18
  • Pages: 

    5-21
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    3280
  • Downloads: 

    2108
Abstract: 

The architecture of Qajar period can interestingly be seen in its HOUSES which contain decorative elements such as OROSI, this OROSIes include special pattern and design in which considering the influence of west architecture and decline of traditional elements are being forgotten.The type of this research study is descriptive -analytical and collection method is library - athletics which plans to study OROSIes of Qajar HOUSES based on Shams Ol Emare in Golestan palace, Masoodie house and Sahebgheranieh house.The purpose of this research is study of patterns of these HOUSES and accommodating them with each other and adapting this main pattern with other Arts of Qajar period.The result of this study is that all the patterns are curved and in the form of paisley design and tetramerous and floral elements that have been used in all of Qajar arts, it is inferred that the traditional design in Qajar period have been used in all kind of arts, and in each field based on its material and its tool it has been to form an elaborate work of Art or just associated with a simple one.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2015
  • Volume: 

    25
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Pages: 

    94-99
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    16473
  • Downloads: 

    10133
Abstract: 

Traditional building technologies have much to teach us about how to design regionally appropriate structures. The OROSI is one of these useful technologies, which has been used for many centuries in order to control the harsh sunlight in Iran. This architectural element was rather important because the intensive solar radiation could easily damage valuable carpets used in most spaces in Persian buildings. The main question of this research was how much could the traditional OROSI windows reduce the harmful spectrums of sunlight? In order to investigate this effect, a combination of field study, laboratory measurements, and case study research method was applied. Nine Persian traditional OROSI windows were chosen as case studies and the windows’ geometric lattice (Gereh– Chini) and glazing color combinations were drawn and plotted. The experiment was carried out for carpeted and non– carpeted spaces. In order to measure the light transmission of the sample tinted glazing from the OROSI windows, a T80+ spectrophotometer was used. After calculating CIE and skin damage factors and visible transmittance for each piece of glass, an area weighting was used to calculate these factors for the entire OROSI. The results show a significant difference between CIE damage factors of the OROSIs in carpeted and non– carpeted spaces; where the carpeted spaces had the least amount of CIE damage factor.

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Journal: 

ARMANSHAHR

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2015
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    14
  • Pages: 

    67-79
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    15810
  • Downloads: 

    9365
Abstract: 

In recent years, space syntax theory has been used for analyzing spatial configurations; these analyses mostly focus on social aspects. According to the space syntax theory, space arrangements affect the space usage in buildings. This paper aims at studying spatial configurations of some traditional HOUSES in Iran in terms of flexibility factor. Besides of having the housing function and providing inhabitancy, having Hussainia function and providing a place for holding religious ceremonies, these buildings have turned to a flexible space due to those two different functions. Considering building time of these HOUSES, Qajar period, they are taken into consideration of these terms. This paper discusses flexibility as a quality factor due to the concept of space syntax. Three Khaneh-Hussainias have been selected by the non-probabilistic sampling from the city of Qazvin, named Amini, Razavi and Akhavizadegan. Then the access graphs of these HOUSES are represented as data processing matter with convective degrees of two functions. OROSI has been introduced in this paper as an element that influences flexibility of spaces. The methodology of this paper is based on descriptive-analytical research in order to be adopted with plans of the HOUSES for analyzing data. The results which are concluded from deductive argumentation demonstrate that flexibility in these HOUSES is formed from justified space syntax on the basis of socio-cultural factors.

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گارگاه ها آموزشی
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2017
  • Volume: 

    22
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Pages: 

    87-97
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    348
  • Downloads: 

    244
Abstract: 

Stained glass windows are among the elements that have high decorative aspects in Iranian traditional homes. One of the ways to increase the lifetime of welcoming an artwork is breathe and live in the atmosphere of the traditions that have been prominent in the test of time. The main purpose of the present study is decoding the knowledge and skill of the architects of the architectural arrays through the monitoring of the frequency and distribution of color, especially the red color in the stained glass windows.The statistical population of the present study is 121 existing stained glass windows of the city of Tabriz that include all the ones used in different locations and historical periods. In order to limit the study, the Qajar period and residential use were the primary criteria for screening the statistical society. Regarding the purpose of the article, the crown pattern, which has the ability to calibrate and overlap, was used to discover the type of distribution.After determining the purpose, introducing the theoretical background and the experimental data (recognition of components and elements) on sash wood, the method and framework of the research, sample size, analytical method, findings and conclusions, while referring to the different colors used in stained glass windows, the present research tried to study the order, position, abundance and distribution of red color compared to other colors used in stained glass windows in Qajar HOUSES in Tabriz and attempted to answer some questions such as:- Which color used in the stained glass windows has the highest percentage of presence?- Compared to the other colors, how is red color positioned in stained glass windows of Qajar architecture?To answer these questions, photographs were taken from a sample of 22 crown head of stained glass windows in Qajar HOUSES in Tabriz, and then, using the AutoCAD and Photoshop software, the colors and proportions of the windows were examined. The research methodology was descriptive-analytic. The theoretical foundations of this research were based on library information and the collection of written documents in the field of color and stained glass windows.According to our results, compared to other colors (such as blue, green, orange and yellow) the color red, ranked the highest in terms of presence in the window crown light-passing surface (i.e., the visible transmittance surface). In terms of importance, color red also won the race with an abundance equal to 86.2%. Comparison of color distribution patterns across the Stained glass window crowns revealed that color red had a particularly regular and rhythmic distribution. Considering these results, we concluded that deployment of colors in the arrangement of Stained glass window transmittance area was not random, but was based on a hidden proportional order. Furthermore, it was found that the masters in an intuitive or attainted way were aware of the red color and have utilized hidden principles in using it. They knew how to use it so that it would look attractive and appealing while avoiding its excessive use.

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Journal: 

ARMANSHAHR

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2018
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    23
  • Pages: 

    27-39
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    549
  • Downloads: 

    450
Abstract: 

Considered a multi-aspect and complex issue, a house is a social institution that has major effects on the lives of its dwellers. Today, turbulence and interference of people’ s daily activities and their effects on intra-family and extra-family social relations, and lack of appropriate relations between patterns of personal relations and allocated spaces to HOUSES have led to dwellers’ dissatisfaction. The main goal of this study is to investigate those semantic changes, pertaining to patterns of daily activities and social relations. In this research, historical and ethnographic methods are employed to study traditional and contemporary HOUSES respectively. Results show there have been changes in people’ s activity pattern, entertainment programs, doing and dividing works, time management, health care system, domestic food production and intra-family and extra-family social relationships. These changes have occurred along with spatial changes; therefore, the socio-spatial meaning of the part related to social relationships and activities has been integrated into contemporary HOUSES; in a way so that in some spaces the socio-spatial meaning is totally changed, in some spaces the new meaning, in line with the past meaning, has gained a new form and in some others the same past meaning is retained. Among socio-spatial meanings which survive in new forms, one can point to the role of father in the family and its socio-spatial effects. Among the totally changed meanings, we can mention the role of woman at home and its socio-spatial impacts. On the other hand, these changes have affected, with varying degrees, different things from the patterns of activities to physical features of HOUSES. Issues like object-orientation significance vs. space-orientation, weakened role of spatial form and geometry, tendency for closed spaces vs. open ones and individuality are instances of these changes. House as one of the noble human heritage has always been considered from various angles and as a social institution has a great effect on the lives of its inhabitants. And alongside human life, which has many challenges and complexities, the house is also a complex subject with different semantic layers. Considering the fact that the house as a social institution has a high status in society, therefore, social meaning among other meanings of the house is of particular importance. Therefore, in this research, how this meaning is defined in the spaces of the house is dealt with. The turmoil and interference between the activities of people who are today most likely to be seen in homes indicates the inappropriateness and proper relationship between the pattern of activities of individuals and the home spaces. On the other hand, the lack of proper understanding of the pattern of current activities of individuals led to the design of spatial disparities with the pattern of activities in most homes, which led to residents’ dissatisfaction. Because social cultural categories are always created in a long time, it seems that what we see today is created in a historical context. In fact, in order to better understand the current situation, this relationship should be measured in traditional homes so that we can correct the defects by comparing what we are seeing today. In this way, the relationship between the pattern of activities and the spaces of traditional and contemporary HOUSES and the socio-spatial meaning of the subject followed up by the study is measured in a selection of traditional and contemporary HOUSES in Arak. In this research, a historical method has been used to study traditional HOUSES and ethnographic methods for contemporary HOUSES. Historically, data collection has been used through interviews with the old residents of these HOUSES and the observation of the building (field method) as well as the documents of the Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization, and also ethnographic studies and historical sociology. The data of contemporary HOUSES in Arak are also gathered through ethnographic method and participatory observation. Changes in homes are investigated in four factors: activities, social relationships, time, and spatial-physical characteristics in homes. Then, by comparing these four factors and data tables, socio-spatial changes in these homes were obtained. The comparative comparison of traditional and contemporary HOUSES in Arak shows that a change has occurred in the socio-spatial sense of the house. It is important to note that the transformation of meaning in all the spaces and activities is not the same, so that in some spaces the social-spatial meaning has completely changed. In some spaces, along with the meaning of the past, a new meaning has been found, and in others, the same meaning in the past is spilled in space.

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Author(s): 

ABBAS ALIPOUR S.

Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2007
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    30
  • Pages: 

    83-90
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    219
  • Downloads: 

    109
Abstract: 

This article presents a part of the author's study of nanotechnology on the future of architecture. First, it considers the scientific aspect of architecture and clarifies the relationship between the subject to architecture, by a survey in fixed principles and concepts of architecture and words of great architects. In the end it presents the examples of the use of this technology and introduces the qualities that can be achieved by the architects in the future. In addition through this study they explained the importance of this subject by considering the positive and negative effects of this technology. They predict that nanotechnology will change the architectural principles and it will remove some limitations and shortages such as standards and untransformative materials like brick and concrete. When scientists are examining things at the nanoscale, they find that materials operate differently than they do in our familiar world. Different electrical and physical interactions come into play at the nanoscale, so scientists need an understanding of many different disciplines when working in nanotechnology. A fusion of chemistry, physics and engineering, nanotechnology is the manipulation and assembly of material with atomic precision. Traditionally, products are constructed by cutting or etching away material from substances to make them smaller. Nanotechnology takes something small and builds it from the ground up by adding to it. By developing materials at the molecular level, scientists can create new forms of matter that are stronger and more elastic, refract light differently, have different electrical characteristics, and even respond to their environment. These unique properties will help scientists use nanotechnology to generate scientific breakthroughs in electronics, life sciences and materials. Nanotechnology solutions are already found in a range of commercial products. Nano clays improve the physical characteristics of plastics and provide ultra-hard coatings for eyeglasses. Life scientists are already using nanotechnology to advance healthcare. Unusual forms of matter called "quantum dots" help diagnose disease and discover new drugs. Nanotechnology can remove worthless stuff and pollution from the environment, also it can dramatically prevent to waste resources that, it itself merely can cause to decrease the final price of the most of products processes and steps of operations. Nano technology is not potentially good or bad, like all developed technologies in the world, but to what makes it useful or useless, is the way that human applies it, in his life. So it is clear that, the more technology is capable and applicable, the more it needs to be controlled, in order to be applied in the best way for people and promotes the quality of their life. If we don't correctly control nanotechnology or if we use it in the wrong way, it can cause to irrecoverable outcome. Although this technology will indicate a new ways, we should be aware of environmental problems, try to reduce the pollution through green products and decrease the use of diminished sources and energies. We should try to study carefully the potential effects of different use of nano particles on human's health and environment, in order to control its harmful effects in the future.

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Author(s): 

KHAKPOUR MOZHGAN

Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2006
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    25
  • Pages: 

    45-54
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    4
  • Views: 

    4842
  • Downloads: 

    2535
Abstract: 

Because of existing of a high-level potential of the wood resources in forest zones in north of Iran, the residential architecture is completely different from the other parts of this country. The present work is concerned on a special building in the center of Guilan which is called the "Shekili building" and some constructor people believes that the "Shekili" is a magical pattern of wood employment in residential building structures. The paper also tries to show the procedure of finding the best choices of the residential construction materials, and the wooden based structural details. Meanwhile, the current work also presents the special characters, building construction details, and the traditional construction materials of the "Shekili". The information is collected from the villages and structural parts which are marked on their native names. However, most of the information are collected from human resources and detail field observations of the traditional buildings in selected villages. Additionally, some details about the loading and structural analysis are also explained, which all of them illustrates the knowledge level of the building constructors of Guilan. Finally, by illustration of some fundamental characters of Guilan traditional architecture, useful guidelines are proposed for more optimal design of the traditional buildings.    

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    6
  • Issue: 

    4 (21)
  • Pages: 

    3-16
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    1759
  • Downloads: 

    1368
Abstract: 

Since man has been engaged in architecture, he has paid attention to the spiritual, inner needs and aesthetics sense too. Today, in architecture, aesthetics is limited to formal secondary factors due to lack of the systematic and applied explanation, while this concept has a more definition and is closely related to structure, details of construction, audience and environment. Iranian architecture that has manifested aesthetics over many years age, has been a rich source for adapting the principles of aesthetics in architecture. Quantitative and qualitative foundations in traditional architecture, which are related to the aesthetics and visual principles set on structure and proportions, lead to aesthetics appearance. Accordingly This research tries to answer the question: how are aesthetics principles engaged in Iranian architecture in order to utilizing them in contemporary architecture. The analysis of the HOUSES was carried out in Mashhad because of its historical background, which was a rich source of architectural works. In this research, current findings of different schools and philosophers viewpoints about aesthetics were collected next analyzed and Interpreted with content analysis method which they formed the criteria of analysis. Using the documentations, 10 types of Mashhad historical HOUSES were analyzed with aesthetics factors, all of them were belonged to Qajar period. In this analysis, according to architectural changes affected from historical conditions (Qajar period), the spatial & structural principles of the HOUSES belonged to the first period and the beginning of the second period were conformed with aesthetics criteria. While the HOUSES belonged to second Qajar period, they included elements as sloping roofs, and issues like: having less application of the symmetry and proportionality in the plan & faç ade, and more extravagance, which is a conception of Western architecture and doesn’ t fit to regional culture and climate.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    3
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Pages: 

    0-0
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    24223
  • Downloads: 

    9195
Abstract: 

From long ago, “house” was something more than just a shelter and the spiritual aspects could be seen in every step, from construction to the usage. But nowadays, ignoring the quality as well as spiritual requirements of the inhabitants while considering the economical and functional factors, result in reducing the role of HOUSES in devoting the identification to the human beings, to the extent which one of the regardless issues in programming and designing process of the HOUSES appear to be the cultural values. From the authors’ point of view, making use of our ancestors’ experiences in designing the identified HOUSES, today known as “Iranian HOUSES”, seems to be helpful in overcoming the current situation. The paper is a case study research with a combinational method that has the descriptive, analytical and logical reasoning research methods. Therefore, in this article, the authors tried to investigate the valuable concepts of traditional Iranian HOUSES, relied on the particular lifestyle by the means of direct observation, field study, documents review and interviewing with some of the traditional HOUSES inhabitants. Thus, for identification of “life”, indicators such as family and lifestyle are discussed and the data resulting from the questionnaires is listed .The results show that there was correct relation between the building and the inhabitants’ “life style” in traditional HOUSES. In this way, the association between “the life” and some of the important factors found in the Iranian HOUSES, including nature, group living, space flexibility, neighbors, beauty etc. are explained to achieve a comprehensive viewpoint of Iranian HOUSES.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    10
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Pages: 

    55-64
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    309
  • Downloads: 

    148
Abstract: 

This research aims to complete previous studies on advantages of stained glass used in traditional Persian architecture. A research method combined of laboratory measurements, field surveys and numerical calculations was employed. Firstly, spectral transmittance of glazing samples were measured by spectrophotometer. Next, percentage of using each glass in each OROSI window were specified by field surveys; ultimately, the solar transmittance factors of each OROSI window were quantified based on the optical characteristics of individual glass samples, and percentage of using each of them in the OROSI window. The results indicated that although OROSI windows decrease transmission of visible light, but they reduce transmission of wavelengths harmful to human skin and damaging for materials, more than the reduction of visible light transmittance.

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