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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
اسکوپوس
دانشگاه غیر انتفاعی مهر اروند
ریسرچگیت
strs
Author(s): 

MESHKAT ALDINI MAHDI

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2002
  • Volume: 

    34
  • Issue: 

    3-4
  • Pages: 

    447-478
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    877
  • Downloads: 

    129
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Early child speech begins at about the age of 18 months as holophrastic or single word utterances, which develop to two-word speech, or early patterned utterances, from the age of 20 to 24 months. The child's early speech in interpretable only with reference to objects and events in his environment. Researches have analyzed and described the child's two-word speech within various linguistic frameworks, describing thus the child's early GRAMMAR. In this article, the writer first explains and criticizes the various ways used to describe, the early GRAMMAR, drawing on the samples of speech of two Persian-speaking children. Then, the writer describes the child's early speech based on Chomsky's Universal GRAMMAR.

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Author(s): 

MAJD OMID | Saleh Mohammad Baktiar Mohammad

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2020
  • Volume: 

    5
  • Issue: 

    18
  • Pages: 

    1-13
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    415
  • Downloads: 

    267
Abstract: 

It has passed several decades since the first Iranian students studying abroad returned back home. The first needs of these students is " teaching Persian language as according with the courses presented across many academic Persian teaching centers like Tehran university, Imam Khomeini International university, Sa'adi Foundation and other respective institutes. One of the most vital and probably the most fundamental education needs of Persian language is its GRAMMAR which managed to gain a special position among its four skills. Regarding my experiences related with teaching Persian GRAMMAR to the Iranian and foreign students across various university levels, I intend to present the required first level GRAMMAR materials here. In other words, the current article involves the minimum materials a typical foreign freshman university student needs when using Persian GRAMMAR. Clearly, these are only the headings and sufficiently required practices need to be added for teaching perfectly in the classroom.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2018
  • Volume: 

    10
  • Issue: 

    18
  • Pages: 

    67-82
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    45502
  • Downloads: 

    23344
Abstract: 

Arabic GRAMMAR for understanding the meaning of the Holy Quran emerged from the various methods and then was promoted step by step until the current advanced level, thanks to the different ways that researchers of Arabic language use for understanding the meaning of these methods. Fazel Saleh Allsameraei is a contemporary GRAMMAR gourmet that uses a different approach for the investigation of this science and attempts to return the meaning as spirit for inanimate body of logical arguments of GRAMMAR experts. This research, with its descriptive - analytical method, studies the books of this author, especially the meaning of syntax, investigation the methods that Fazel Saleh Allsameraei tried to revive the rough and soulless science. The Sameraei’s effort is based on restoring the GRAMMAR to the first two hegira centuries and investigating it along with eloquence sciences, especially semantics and addressing the audiences to primary sources of GRAMMAR noted as the most important of this research’s findings.

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گارگاه ها آموزشی
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2017
  • Volume: 

    6
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Pages: 

    193-211
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    51829
  • Downloads: 

    42111
Abstract: 

To date, controversy among scholars exists on whether or not teachers should react to EFL learners' written GRAMMAR errors. This study investigated the effect of three feedback types (i.e., selective, comprehensive, and the one recommended by Truscott (1999), that is, no correction) with regard to possible improvements in accuracy in the writings of a total of 66 elementary EFL learners. It, further, sought whether such an effect would last in the long run. During 11 weeks, selected global (e.g., past tense, countable/uncountable, and comparative adjectives) and all GRAMMAR errors in the written pieces of the subjects in two treatment groups (n=22 in each) were reacted through coded underlining. However, in line with Truscott, the only reaction participants in the third group (n=22) received were comments such as great, good, ok, etc. Analysis of the written pieces in the immediate and delayed post tests revealed that selective feedback had a significantly more positive influence on learners' accurate use of selected grammatical structures both in the short and in the long run. The implications are discussed in terms of effective guidelines for teaching writing in EFL contexts.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    11
  • Issue: 

    20
  • Pages: 

    287-315
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    30
  • Downloads: 

    112
Abstract: 

Civil law has a significant role in determining and examining human rights, its specific rules, and its regulations. Due to the importance of civil law in ensuring the safety and health of society, it seems necessary that its texts observe the GRAMMAR and principles of Persian writing. Incorrect phrases and incomprehensible sentences cause confusion among law enforcement officers, bring about different inferences, and result in the violation of the rights of the subjects. Therefore, for proper implementation, the understanding of law must not be limited to a special group. Therefore, observing the principles of Persian writing is one of the most important duties of any writer in writing any type of writing. It creates clarity, maturity and semantic accuracy in texts, which in addition to protecting the language and institutionalizing the correct writing pattern, causes more readability of the text, durability, efficiency and effectiveness of the text. Therefore, in writing and compiling books of law, one must be very careful not to transgress linguistic frameworks, and avoid spelling, grammatical and linguistic errors. In the present study, the pathology of civil law from the perspective of Persian writing principles and GRAMMAR has been studied with a descriptive and qualitative method based on library study. The object of the study is practical. It pays attention to correcting and editing of law sources gaining help from experts of Persian language and literature. The results of the research show that the civil law in terms of writing and editing requires careful literary supervision and revision.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    16
  • Issue: 

    3 (41)
  • Pages: 

    23-35
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    393
  • Downloads: 

    209
Abstract: 

In linguistics, a tree bank is a parsed text corpus that annotates syntactic or semantic sentence structure. The exploitation of tree bank data has been important ever since the first large-scale tree bank, The Penn Treebank, was published. However, although originating in computational linguistics, the value of tree bank is becoming more widely appreciated in linguistics research as a whole. For example, annotated tree bank data has been crucial in syntactic research to test linguistic theories of sentence structure against large quantities of naturally occurring examples. The natural language parser consists of two basic parts, POS tagger and the syntax parser. A Part-Of-Speech Tagger (POS Tagger) is a piece of software that reads text in some languages and assigns parts of speech to each word (and other token), such as noun, verb, adjective, etc., although generally computational applications use more fine-grained POS tags like 'noun-plural'. A natural language parser is a program that works out the grammatical structure of sentences, for instance, which groups of words go together (as "phrases") and which words are the subject or object of a verb. Probabilistic parsers use knowledge of language gained from hand-parsed sentences to try to produce the most likely analysis of new sentences. These statistical parsers still make some mistakes, but commonly work rather well. Inaccurate design of context-free GRAMMARs and using bad structures such as Chomsky normal form can reduce accuracy of probabilistic context-free GRAMMAR parser. Weak independence assumption is one of the problems related to CFG. We have tried to improve this problem with parent and child annotation, which copies the label of a parent node onto the labels of its children, and it can improve the performance of a PCFG. In GRAMMAR, a conjunction (conj) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjunctions. In this study, we examined the conjunction phrases in the Persian tree bank. The results of this study show that adding structural dependencies to GRAMMARs and modifying the basic rules can remove conjunction ambiguity and increase accuracy of probabilistic context-free GRAMMAR parser. When a part-of-speech (PoS) tagger assigns word class labels to tokens, it has to select from a set of possible labels whose size usually ranges from fifty to several hundred labels depending on the language. In this study, we have investigated the effect of fine and coarse grain POS tags and merging non-terminals on Persian PCFG parser.

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strs
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2017
  • Volume: 

    9
  • Issue: 

    22
  • Pages: 

    107-125
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    419
  • Downloads: 

    210
Abstract: 

This paper is concerned with the study of locative predicates in Persian within the Role and Reference GRAMMAR (RRG) framework and two different analyses presented by Van Valin and LaPolla (1997) and also Boutin (2004). Providing a semantically based classification of mentioned predicates in Persian is one of the objectives of this study. The other objective is testing the efficiency of the two analyses especially Boutin’ s suggestion about locative predicates in Persian. Boutin (2004) argues that there is discrepancy between semantic and syntactic valency of locative predicates within the RRG framework, since, they have a semantic valency of two and a syntactic valency of one in a large number of languages. Hence, these predicates have been treated as exceptions in terms of valency correlation. He believes that if the location (one of the arguments of locative predicates) is treated as a separate predicate, rather than referring expression, then these verbs are intransitive and not exceptions in terms of valency correlation. The findings of the present study reveal that Boutin’ s suggestion (2004) holds true in Persian locative states, achievements, accomplishments and active accomplishments, but not for activities.

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Author(s): 

KHOEINI ESMAT | KABKI MEHDI

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2017
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    81
  • Pages: 

    119-140
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    988
  • Downloads: 

    343
Abstract: 

Contemporary poetry can be divided into the poetry of before and after the Islamic Revolution. Among the post-revolutionary poetry, the Pishro or avant-garde Poetry is the most important style of poetry. The well-known figure of this kind of poetry is Reza Baraheni (1935-) who became the most influential poet of the Post-Revolution Poetry with the publication of his Khetab be Parvane ha and introducing his literary ideas in different articles. Baraheni attempts in his poetic theory, which is known as lingual theory, to reach multilingualism in poetry, multiplicity of forms and language, disintegration of meaning, disintegration of narrative, disintegration of GRAMMAR, formalism, and disintegration of description. In the present study, topics such as morphological innovations and morphological and syntactic deviations in Khetab be Parvane ha are studied. As a result, deviations in these poems are divided into two: the successful linguistic part where Baraheni manages to bring some new words into Persian language without disturbing its morphological structure, and the unsuccessful syntactic part where all the rules governing the sentence have been disturbed.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    7
  • Issue: 

    26
  • Pages: 

    53-71
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    38497
  • Downloads: 

    30601
Abstract: 

This research studies the Extended Projection Principle and explains the status of subject construction in the sentences of Avestan, Old, and Middle Persian based on the Generative GRAMMAR. The results show that the Extended Projection Principle feature in those languages is strong and the tense functional head after valuation of the case feature on the noun phrase in the specifier of little verb phrase and receiving the proper valuation for its phi-feature from the same noun phrase, should have a noun phrase in its specifier based on the Extended Projection Principle. In those languages, the subject cannot remain in the specifier of the little verb phrase and should move to upper functional head due to the strength of the Extended Projection Principle. This study shows that the unmarked word order in the embedded sentences of those languages is subject-object-verb order but in the matrix sentences, the constructions can move to other positions based on the scrambling.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    1
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Pages: 

    57-71
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    155184
  • Downloads: 

    106123
Abstract: 

The objective of the present study was to show the need for GRAMMAR instruction in the English language classroom and how this need could be fulfilled through an effective pedagogy combining a bottom-up explicit teacher centered grammatical instruction with a top-down communicative approach. To this end, from among 100 female intermediate-level students at a junior high school in Babol, Iran, 60 homogeneous students were assigned to the control and experimental groups following the administration of a standardized English proficiency test. Then, a multiple-choice pretest of GRAMMAR was administered, the results of which indicated that the two groups were homogeneous in terms of their knowledge of GRAMMAR. During the instruction, the experimental group was instructed using grammatical consciousness-raising (C-R) activities to reinforce the GRAMMAR points and the control group practiced GRAMMAR through the use of communicative techniques. Afterwards, both groups took part in a GRAMMAR posttest identical to the one used as the pretest. Using a t-test, the researchers found that the treatment had a significant effect on the GRAMMAR knowledge of the experimental group. It was concluded that the use of C-R activities could be a very efficient technique in improving the grammatical knowledge of EFL learners.

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