In a taxonomic study on the genus Podosphaera sect. Sphaerotheca, several newly collected specimens and all specimens from fungus collection of the Ministry of Jihad-e- Agriculture, were examined. A total of 13 taxa including Podosphaera aphanis var. aphanis, P. aphanis var. hyalina, P. balsaminae, P. dipsacacearum, P. erodii, P. euphorbiae, P. ferruginea, P. fugax, P. fusca, P. macularis, P. plantaginis, P. pannosa and P. xanthii were identified. Morphology of the thin-walled apical portion of the asci (oculus) was examined among taxa. The results revealed the usefulness of this feature for identification of some taxa as shown by other researchers. On the basis of morphological characteristics of P. aphanis var. hyalina, it was shown that taxon differrs from type variety in having short appendages, ascus size as well as wider oculi. It seems there is enough evidence to raise this variety as a separate species. Hence, it is necessary to investigate more characteristics especially ribosomal DNA or other genes sequencing to make an indisputable decision. Plant species viz. Hieracium sp., Potentilla hirta and Scabiosa persica are recorded as new hosts for Erysiphaceae of Iran. A key for the Iranian taxa of this SECTION is provided.