Background: The subsidy targeting program through cash transfer in Iran, established in 2010, has influenced the quality of social life as well as nutritional status of Iranian households. In this qualitative study, lived experience and understanding of urban women in Tehran about the program was evaluated.Methods: This study was part of a research project entitled “Effectiveness of subsidy targeting through cash transfer on food security and nutritional status of urban population in Tehran: evaluation of a program”. To collect data, seven semi-structured focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with 76 women who have experienced the effects of cash transfer program on their households as mother, wife or daughter. Based on open sampling, with the aim of maximum variation of the participants’ experiences, three socio-demographically diverse distincts from the north, centre and south of Tehran metropolis were selected. All the FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data collection and analysis were done simultaneously using the Constant Comparative Methods in the qualitative research.Results: In the face of intial manifest goals of the subsidy targeting program through cash transfer to reduce social inequalities and poverty at multiple levels, this program has in practice increased the relative deprivation and social gaps in residents of Iranian metropolises like Tehran. FGDs showed that social observability and participation of members of Iranian household in social events has decreased as major components of social capital. Moreover, most of the participants believed that the dependency ratio has gone into reverse in urban households in Iran and couples in reproductive age have ever-incresingly become dependent on aged members of their families for managing their livelihood.Some women believed that this program has increased the domestic violence and decreased their hope to the future of their children which in turn could led to lower childbearing and population growth. In contrast, some women evaluated it as a good program, which was not implemented well.Conclusion: Cash transfer Program in Iran has raised negative and positive viewpoints in women based on its impacts on inflation and household expenditures.