Purpose: To determine the visual and anatomical outcomes and complications of Vitrectomy for non-traumatic non-Diabetic vitreous hemorrhage (NDVH) and to report the causes of the condition among patients at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran-Iran, from 1993 to 2003.Method: Records of patients who underwent Vitrectomy for non-traumatic NDVH with 6 months follow-up were reviewed for demographic characteristics, causes of NDVH and results of surgery. Results: Fifty eyes (54.2%right eyes) of 49 patients (51% male) with mean age of 62.7±10.3 years Were enrolled in the study. Mean visual acuity (VA) was 2.36±0.52 LogMAR and relative afferent Papillary defect (RAPD) was positive in 91.7% of the eyes, preoperatively. Causes of non-traumatic NDVH detected intraoperatively were: branch retinal vein occlusion (56%), central retinal vein occlusion (16%), choroidal neovascularization (12%), and posterior vitreous detachment with break, Eales disease, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, and Terson syndrome (eachin 4%). Mean VA increased significantly at 6th month (1.38±0.72 logMAR) compared to preoperative value. (P<0.0001) The most common causes of decreased VA were: macular pigmentary derangement (26%), optic atrophy (16%), severe lens opacity (12%), and epiretinal membrane (8%). Conclusion: Despite the statistically significant increase in mean VA following Vitrectomy, underlying macular pathology limits significant improvement of central VA in most cases of non-traumatic NDVH.