Purpose: To determine the effect of CARPET WEAVING on refractive errorsMethods: In this cross sectional study, CARPET weavers and non-weavers in the normal population of Mashhad were regarded as exposed and non-exposed groups, respectively. A CARPET weaver was a person who wove CARPETs 7 hours a day for at least 2 years. The non-weavers group was selected from the population of Mashhad through stratified cluster sampling. The variables of age, gender, education, with respect to their frequency, were matched between the two groups.Results: In this study, 266 CARPET weavers (exposed individuals) and 549 non-weavers group (non-exposed individuals) were evaluated. The prevalence of myopia was 78.9% in CARPET weavers and 19.0% in non-weavers [Odds ratio (OR)=16.03, 95% confidence interval (CI)=11.13-23.09]. The prevalence of hyperopia was 6.02% in CARPET weavers, and 56.75% in non-weaver group (OR=0.05, P<0.001). The prevalence of astigmatism was 39.47% in CARPET weavers and 21.46% in non-weavers. The odds of against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism was 1.72 times more in CARPET weavers as compared to non-weavers (P<0.001).Conclusion: The results of this study showed that CARPET WEAVING had a strong correlation with myopia. In addition to myopia, the prevalence of astigmatism, specially ATR astigmatism, was higher in CARPET weavers.