-- permissive permissive permissive permissive permissive - U. S. EPA بد acceptable acceptable good - good good good (Schoeller, 1965) Si-Cl SH5 desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable Iran 1053 permissive permissive permissive permissive - permissive permissive permissive WHO (2011) -- permissive permissive permissive permissive permissive - U. S. EPA Measured parameters indicated that according to the standards of World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) all the springs (except Katalom which is somewhat acidic) are in permissive and desirable limit in respect of total dissolved solids (TDS), electric conductivity and acidity (pH). BOD values also showed that due to wastewater pollution there are many aerobic microorganisms and organic materials in the water of Giash spring while in the other springs, this parameter is zero and so there is no microorganism. Electric conductivity rates in all springs are in permissive range, but in Kachanak spring exceeds it. Comparing the anions contents with that provided by WHO, indicated that anions also are in the permissive ranges. Bicarbonate content in Kachanak spring is higher than other springs and nitrate in the Giash spring is the highest. Comparing the major cations in 5 studied springs showed that the lowest sodium and potassium contents are in the Giash and the greatest in Katalom spring. The highest contents of both calcium and magnesium were in Kachanak but the lowest ones in Rishboraz Darreh and Giash respectively. Silicon amount in Katalom was the greatest and the lowest in Giash. It seems that the unusually high amount of silicon is due to mixing of magmatic hot water with groundwater. According to WHO all the cations are in permissive range. Metal index (MI) (Tamasi et al., 2004) and Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) (Mohan et al., 1996) are indicators to determine the pollution extent in the water resources in respect of heavy metals. MI is used to evaluate the potability, and HPI is used to examine the effects of the heavy metal on human health. To determine these indices, 13 elements data including Ba, As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mo, Zn, Se, Mn, Sb, V, Cu were used. In all the springs, calculated MI and HPI were in the permissive range, which suggests a lack of severe pollution in terms of heavy metals. Katalom and Kachanak springs have the highest, and Namak Darreh has the lowest indices values (table 2). Geothermal activities in the vicinity of Katalom, Sadat Shahr and Ramsar, presence of thermal springs (and mixing of their water with mentioned springs), old mining activities in Katalom and agriculture activities in the area are among the reasons for these high indices’ values in Katalom and Kachanak springs. Table 2-Calculated MI and HPI indices for the studied springs. Giash SH5 Namak Darreh SH4 Rishboraz Darreh SH3 Katalom SH2 Kachanak SH1 Spring name Index 0. 098 0. 082 0. 123 0. 449 0. 302 MI 0. 009 0. 0078 0. 0106 0. 026 0. 012 HPI 4-Conclusion Based on the interpretation and processing of the information obtained from chemical analysis and evaluation of physical parameters, results on the studied springs are as follow: Kachanak spring is of Si-HCO3 type, and the others are of Si-Cl type. Silicon contents are higher than other elements. Alkaline earth metals (Ca2+, Mg2+) are more than alkaline elements (Na+, K+) and anions of strong acids (SO2-4) are more than weak acids (HCO3-). Noncarbonated hardness exceeds 50%. According to Schoeller standard, Kachanak spring is in non-drinkable and bad classes concerning calcium and magnesium contents, respectively. In Katalom spring, pH value is out of the limit of Schoeller standard and calcium, and magnesium contents were bad and moderate respectively. In Rishboraz Darreh calcium and magnesium, parameters are in acceptable for emergency conditions and moderate classes, respectively. In Namak Darreh spring, calcium is in unsuitable class, and magnesium is in moderate one. Moreover, pH parameter is also lower than the defined limit in this classification. In Giash spring, only in respect of calcium parameters is unsuitable class. All the springs of the studied area are in a good or acceptable group concerning other parameters. According to the Iranian standard (1053), in Kachanak spring, total hardness (TH) is unsuitable in undesirable range but is permissive, in Rishboraz Darreh, Namak Darreh, and Giash springs, parameters are desirable. According to WHO (2011) and U. S Environmental Protection Agency (U. S. EPA), pH parameter of Katalom is out of permissive limit, but TDS and total alkalinity in all springs are in the permissive range. Also, MI and concentration of heavy metals such as nickel, arsenic, lead, CHROMIUM in Katalom spring are most significant among other springs.