Acanthophyllum ejtehadii (sect. Oligosperma) is described as a new species to the science from Khorassan, NE Iran, which is closely related to A. diezianum. Acanthophyllum maimanense, hitherto known only from NW Afghanistan, is a new record for the flora of Iran. These species are compared with the closely related species of sect. Oligospermaand their distribution data and pictures are provided.