In the current century, agriculture sustainability and the reductionof environmental pressure are two main objectivesof the management of agro-ecosystems that is challenged byenergy inefficiency. In this respect, the present study assessedone of the most important planting systems in sistan regionby emergy analysis approach. It analyzed all inputs ofgreenhouse cucumber production system in sistan includingrenewable inputs (sunlight, wind, rain), non-renewable inputs(net topsoil loss), and purchased inputs (machinery, fossilfuels, electricity, plastic, utility, labor, N, K, P and micro fertilizers, and chemical herbicides) and services. In this study, an emergy analysis was performed on greenhouse cucumberproduction system of sistan using the data collected from a3000-m2 greenhouse in Zahak Agricultural Research Station(as an average representative of agricultural lands in sistanregion). The results revealed that total emergy of greenhousecucumber system was 1. 094 × 1018seJ, and diesel fuel andlabor were the main emergy consumers with the emergy consumptionrates of 7. 9 × 1017 and 1. 92 × 1017seJ ha-1, respectively. Main emergy indices including emergy yield ratio, emergy investment ratio, environmental loading ratio, andsustainability index were found to be 1. 00, 2089, 4. 34 and20. 23, respectively. Therefore, it is imperative to consider theoptimization of highly consumed inputs, the reduction of environmentalimpacts, and the increase in sustainability bymaking changes in greenhouse structures, enhancing energyuse efficiency inside the greenhouse, and mechanizing theplanting, cultivating and harvesting processes in order todevelop greenhouse cucumber system in sistan.