Objective: Economic crisis and austerity has dramatic consequences for health care professionals’ mental health. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of burnout syndrome among doctors working in public or private oncology departments in Greece and its association with factors determined by economic crisis. Method: Medical or radiation oncologists who are members of the National Oncology Societies and practicing oncology at least for one year were enrolled in this study. An On-Line questionnaire consisting of the Maslach burnout Inventory and an informative questionnaire was utilized. Results: Eighty-six On-Line questionnaires waere analyzed. Radiation oncologists had significantly higher Depersonalization (DP), whereas medical oncologists had significantly higher Emotional Exhaustion (EE) scores. Registrars had higher scores compared to consultants in all subscales of the burnout syndrome. Factors such as ‘ ‘ hospitals are not safe due to the lack or reductions in medical supplies and personnel shortage’ ’ and ‘ ‘ receiving less than 50% of annual leave’ ’ were associated with significantly higher levels of EE. Factors such as ‘ ‘ not afraid of moving abroad’ ’ and ‘ ‘ receiving 100% of annual leave’ ’ were associated with significantly higher levels of low Personal Accomplishments (PA). The principal component analysis yielded three principal components: ‘ future insecurity’ , ‘ feeling secure while working’ and ‘ working conditions associated with burnout syndrome. Conclusion: Several factors associated with austerity resulting from economic crisis significantly influenced prevalence of burnout syndrome among oncologists in Greece. Further studies need to be conducted to mobilize policy makers to develop and implement policies to improve oncologists' mental health.