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Writer: 

BOKAEI M. | ENJEZAB B. | FROTAN F.

Journal: 

VIRTUAL

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    0
  • Volume: 

    1
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    178
  • End Page: 

    178
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    2136
  • Downloads: 

    912
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: One of the most discussed phenomena affecting the occurrence of Anemia during pregnancy is so-called physiologic Anemia of pregnancy. This type of Anemia is caused primarily by an increase in plasma volume during the second half of the pregnancy. Plasma volume is increased at a rate much faster than hemoglobin and red blood cells are produced. This phenomenon, combined with the increased capacity of red blood cells to deliver oxygen to the placenta, leads to the development of Anemia in the second half of the pregnancy. The underlying cause is probably an increased concentration in the red blood cells of 2,3-diglycerophosphate, which results in a shift in the form of the hemoglobin dissociation curve, facilitating oxygen delivery to the tissues.Material and method: search in Ovid and other electronic reverences.Results: Some studies suggest that physiologic Anemia is beneficial to the fetus, as it is thought to decrease blood viscosity and enhance placental perfusion to provide better maternal-fetal gas and nutrient exchange. This is especially true in cases of mild Anemia. Multiple unwanted effects on the mother and fetus have been attributed to IDA in pregnancy, although some of the studies reporting these effects were not sufficiently powered to confirm these findings. There is strong evidence of an association between maternal hemoglobin level and birth weight. Although controversial, there is also evidence of an association between maternal hemoglobin concentration and preterm birth. It is not possible to determine how much of this association is attributable to IDA deficiency Anemia specifically. A recent study 15 demonstrated that patients with severe Anemia may have a 4.6-fold increased risk for prolonged labor compared with patients with normal hemoglobin levels. A 4.8-fold higher risk of operative delivery and an increased risk of low-birth-weight infants (<2500 g) also were documented. In this study, unlike others, no increased risk for preterm labor was demonstrated. These findings may represent the effect of multiple nutritional deficiencies and not necessarily the effect of Anemia alone. Patients with Anemia also were documented to have higher induction rates than nonanemic patients.Conclusion: Inadequate intake of iron related to diets poor in bioavailable iron is often responsible for iron deficiency before pregnancy, and metabolic adjustments are insufficient to meet increasing needs during pregnancy. The effects of iron deficiency on the fetus are still controversial. Numerous measures, including the evaluation of erythrocyte ferritin, favor the hypothesis that the level of iron stores in newborns is related to maternal iron status and that the materno-fetal unit is dependent on exogenous iron, which is necessary to prevent iron deficiency in both mothers and infants. In industrialized countries, iron supplements should be prescribed for pregnant women in the third trimester, when the need for iron is prominent. In developing countries, supplementation should be initiated as soon as possible after conception because of the high prevalence of iron deficiency at the onset of pregnancy.

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Title: 
Writer: 

KAVIANPOUR MARIA

Journal: 

VIRTUAL

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    0
  • Volume: 

    1
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    91
  • End Page: 

    91
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    2758
  • Downloads: 

    912
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Malaria, which is caused by species of the parasite genus Plasmodium, remains a major global health problem. Four species of plasmodium can infect man and cause the number one killer parasitic disease- the malaria. The species infecting man are: P.Falciparum, P.Vivax, P.Ovale, and P.Malariae. During their blood stages of infection they induce Anemia. Severe malarial Anemia caused by P.falciparum is responsible for approximately a third of the deaths associated with disease. Malarial Anemia appears to be multi-factorial. It involves increased removal of circulating erythrocytes as well as decreased production of erythrocytes in the bone marrow.The molecular mechanisms underlying malarial Anemia are largely unknown. Over the last five years, malaria parasite ligands have been investigated for their remodeling of erythrocytes and possible roles in destruction of mature erythrocytes. Polymorphisms in cytokines have been associated with susceptibility to severe malarial Anemia: these cytokines and malaria “toxins” likely function by perturbing erythropoiesis. Finally a number of co-infections increase susceptibility to malarial Anemia, likely because they exacerbate inflammation caused by malaria. Because of the complexities involved, the study of severe malarial Anemia may need a “systems approach” to yield comprehensive understanding of defects in both erythropoiesis and immunity associated with disease. New and emerging tools such as 1.mathematical modeling of the dynamics of host control of malarial infection, 2.ex vivo perfusion of human spleen to measure both infected and uninfected erythrocyte retention, and 3. in vitro development of erythroid progenitors to dissect responsiveness to cytokine imbalance or malaria toxins, may be especially useful to develop integrated mechanistic insights and therapies to control this major and fatal disease pathology.

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Journal: 

VIRTUAL

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    0
  • Volume: 

    1
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    9
  • End Page: 

    9
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    2643
  • Downloads: 

    912
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Both obesity and iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) are the main problems of public health, particularly in female adolescence people. IDA by reducing the physical ability, loss of motivation and the necessary power to exercise, decreased brain function and behavioral changes, reduced iron-dependent enzymes in energy metabolism, reduce the heat out of the body or other unknown mechanisms are associated to obesity. The other hand, obese people also follow some diet and taking certain foods for particular areas provides a iron deficiency. Listen Read phonetically.Methods and Materials: This study as a cross-sectional study was done in 2008-2009 at the Yazd city. The 200 female high school students selected by random cluster sampling method. In addition to measuring anthropometric measurements and calculate body mass index (BMI) of each student, 5 ml of blood was taken for measuring CBC and serum ferritin. Serum ferritin and CBC were determined by ECLIA and blood cell counter SYSMEX KX21N method, respectively. In this study iron deficiency (ID) is defined as serum ferritin below 12 mg/L, Anemia as Hb value below 12 g/dl and IDA as coincidence of ID and Anemia. Data were analyzes by SPSS software.Results: Mean of age (year) and BMI (kg/m2) were 15.19±0.7 and 21.5±4.2, respectively. Mean of Hb (g/dl), Hct (%), MCV (fl), MCH (pg), MCHC (g/dl) and ferritin (m/l) were 12.8 ± 0.9, 38.9 ± 3.0, 80.7 ±4.3, 26.6±1.8, 33.2±3.6 and 23±18.2, respectively. The prevalence of ID, Anemia and IDA were 34.7%, 13.5% and 9.3%, respectively. The mean of BMI was not significantly difference between girls with IDA or Anemia and normal girls. The correlation coefficient between BMI and Hb, Hct, RBC, WBC and ferritin were -0.01 (pv=0.8), 0.06 (pv=0.3), 0.18 (pv=0.009), 0.32 (pv=0.001) and 0.05 (pv=0.4), respectively.Conclusion: According to WHO criteria, Anemia is a mild public health problem in this area, but ID is a remarkable problem and must be do the suitable measures for control and prevention of it. In this study did not find the positive association between obesity index and ID, IDA and Anemia.

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Journal: 

VIRTUAL

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    0
  • Volume: 

    1
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    176
  • End Page: 

    176
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    2530
  • Downloads: 

    912
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Anemia is the reduction of normal number of red bloods cells and quantity of hemoglobin in blood. The level of hemoglobin in the blood is widely accepted as the method for diagnosing Anemia. Various hemoglobin values have been proposed for the diagnosis of Anemia in pregnancy. Anemia in pregnancy is defined by WHO as a hemoglobin concentration below 11 g/dL.1 However, the CDC suggests a hemoglobin level of 11 g/dL in the first and third trimesters and 10.5 g/dL in the second trimester as cut-off values for Anemia.7 The definition proposed by WHO is most commonly used. Classification of Anemia is based on etiology, red blood cell form or shape, and duration of disease. A clinically useful classification of Anemia based on hemoglobin level.Material and method: search in Ovid and other electronic reverences.Results : The most common risk factors for the development of IDA in pregnancy include vegetarian diet, menstrual abnormalities prior to pregnancy, minority status, level of education sixth grade or less, high parity (risk increases three-fold in women with two to three children as opposed to nulliparous women), hyperemesis gravidarum, and poverty-level income. In a normal gestation, the total iron requirement throughout the pregnancy is approximately 1 g. Approximately 300 mg are actively transferred to the fetus and placenta, 200 mg are lost to various routes of excretion, and approximately 500 mg are incorporated (if available) into the increasing maternal hemoglobin mass. Erythropoiesis increases progressively with gestational age and returns to normal 5 weeks after delivery.Conclusion: There is an uneven distribution of iron requirements during pregnancy. Because of the absence of menstrual losses and negligible needs of the fetus, iron requirements in the first trimester are very low. Increasing amounts of iron are used during the second half of pregnancy (6–7 mg per day), and the requirement for iron is highest in the third trimester—up to 10 mg per day during the last 6 to 8 weeks of pregnancy.Special attention should be given to teen pregnancies, since the body must meet the gestational requirements in addition to the needs of the growing mother. Particularly significant is the stage of the growth spurt in adolescence when iron requirements are the highest. For example, in 14-year-old girls, median iron requirements can be approximately 30% higher than that for their mothers.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2007
  • Volume: 

    75
  • Issue: 

    -
  • Start Page: 

    671
  • End Page: 

    678
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    157
  • Views: 

    2941
  • Downloads: 

    912
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Yearly Impact:  

View 2941

Download 912 Citation 157 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    1994
  • Volume: 

    71
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    671
  • End Page: 

    673
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    157
  • Views: 

    2735
  • Downloads: 

    912
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Yearly Impact:  

View 2735

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Writer: 

Journal: 

PEDIATRIC ANNALS

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2018
  • Volume: 

    47
  • Issue: 

    2
  • Start Page: 

    42
  • End Page: 

    47
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    212
  • Views: 

    2174
  • Downloads: 

    3992
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Yearly Impact:  

View 2174

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Writer: 

Journal: 

GASTROENTEROL HEPATOL

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2018
  • Volume: 

    41
  • Issue: 

    -
  • Start Page: 

    223
  • End Page: 

    225
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    212
  • Views: 

    667
  • Downloads: 

    3992
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Yearly Impact:  

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2001
  • Volume: 

    6
  • Issue: 

    1 (21)
  • Start Page: 

    95
  • End Page: 

    100
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    6826
  • Downloads: 

    3992
Abstract: 

Background: Regarding the relatively high prevalence of iron deficiency Anemia and paradoxical reports of maternal Anemia effects on neonatal indices of Anemia, this study has been conducted on patients referring to Booali hospital during the academic year 1998-99, to determine the relationship between maternal Anemia and neonatal indices of Anemia. Materials and methods: This cohort study was performed on 15 newborns of anemic mothers and another 15 newborns of normal mothers. Anemic mothers were those with HGB<11 g/dl and serum ferritin <15 m/l. Both groups were matched according to the age, number of children, using iron supplement, disease during pregnancy, gestational age, and neonatal weight (>2500). Then serum iron, serum ferritin and HGB level were measured and the correlation between maternal and neonatal indices was determined. Results: HGB level was 10.5±0.38 gr/dl and 13.1±1.17 gr/dl in the case and control group, respectively. It was 15.9 gl/dl in neonates. No significant difference has reported between HGB, serum iron and ferritin of neonates. Meanwhile, no relationship has detected between HGB and ferritin level of mothers and neonates. Conclusion: Maternal Anemia has no effect on neonatal Anemia indices. The same study on mothers not receiving iron supplement is strongly recommended.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2003
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    35
  • Start Page: 

    55
  • End Page: 

    62
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    166
  • Downloads: 

    101
Abstract: 

Anemia and iron deficiency Anemia is one of the important nutritional and health problems specially in children ,teenager girls and women of fertile ages. The aim of this survey was to identify prevalence of Anemia and iron deficiency Anemia in school girls in Zahedan in 1374- 75 .Ovelall , 1300 female students (1123 students from public schools and 177 students from private schools) were chosen, by using of a multistage random sampling method. Haemoglobin and hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, serum ferritin were measured by standard methods and their individual , social and economical charactristics were recorded by questionnaires. Results showed that prevalence of Anemia in public and private school girls was 8.7%, 1.5% and prevalence of iron deficiency Anemia was 16.2%, 3.8%, respectively. Since, the Anemia in public schools was more than private schools, so it has revealed that iron deficiency Anemia is more common and a risk factor in young girls. Therefore, administration of iron supplements and nutritional education for this group is recommended.

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