Introduction: Both obesity and iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) are the main problems of public health, particularly in female adolescence people. IDA by reducing the physical ability, loss of motivation and the necessary power to exercise, decreased brain function and behavioral changes, reduced iron-dependent enzymes in energy metabolism, reduce the heat out of the body or other unknown mechanisms are associated to obesity. The other hand, obese people also follow some diet and taking certain foods for particular areas provides a iron deficiency. Listen Read phonetically.Methods and Materials: This study as a cross-sectional study was done in 2008-2009 at the Yazd city. The 200 female high school students selected by random cluster sampling method. In addition to measuring anthropometric measurements and calculate body mass index (BMI) of each student, 5 ml of blood was taken for measuring CBC and serum ferritin. Serum ferritin and CBC were determined by ECLIA and blood cell counter SYSMEX KX21N method, respectively. In this study iron deficiency (ID) is defined as serum ferritin below 12 mg/L, Anemia as Hb value below 12 g/dl and IDA as coincidence of ID and Anemia. Data were analyzes by SPSS software.Results: Mean of age (year) and BMI (kg/m2) were 15.19±0.7 and 21.5±4.2, respectively. Mean of Hb (g/dl), Hct (%), MCV (fl), MCH (pg), MCHC (g/dl) and ferritin (m/l) were 12.8 ± 0.9, 38.9 ± 3.0, 80.7 ±4.3, 26.6±1.8, 33.2±3.6 and 23±18.2, respectively. The prevalence of ID, Anemia and IDA were 34.7%, 13.5% and 9.3%, respectively. The mean of BMI was not significantly difference between girls with IDA or Anemia and normal girls. The correlation coefficient between BMI and Hb, Hct, RBC, WBC and ferritin were -0.01 (pv=0.8), 0.06 (pv=0.3), 0.18 (pv=0.009), 0.32 (pv=0.001) and 0.05 (pv=0.4), respectively.Conclusion: According to WHO criteria, Anemia is a mild public health problem in this area, but ID is a remarkable problem and must be do the suitable measures for control and prevention of it. In this study did not find the positive association between obesity index and ID, IDA and Anemia.