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Information Seminar Paper

Title

WASHBACK OF HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATIONS AND ITS EFFECTS ON IRANIAN EFL LEARNERS’ LANGUAGE LEARNING BELIEFS

Writers

SOHRABI FARIBA

Pages

 Start Page | End Page

Abstract

 THE PHENOMENON OF HOW TESTS INFLUENCE TEACHING AND LEARNING IS COMMONLY DESCRIBED AS "WASHBACK" IN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION. LITERATURE INDICATES THAT TESTING WASHBACK IS A COMPLEX CONCEPT THAT BECOMES EVEN MORE COMPLEX UNDER DIFFERENT INTERPRETATIONS OF THE WASHBACK PHENOMENON ON TEACHING AND LEARNING. BASED ON RECENT STUDIES, WASHBACK EFFECT CAN BE POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE. IN THE PRESENT STUDY SOME DEFINITIONS OF WASHBACK AND ITS TWO MAJOR TYPES WERE INTRODUCED, AND ALSO THE EFFECT OF TEST ON TEACHERS AND LEARNERS WAS INDICATED. SOMETHING THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED IS THE VALIDITY OF THE TEST, WHICH INFLUENCES THE EFFECT THAT THE TEST HAS ON TEACHING OR LEARNING. HOWEVER SOMETIMES THERE ARE OTHER FACTORS WHICH DO NOT LET THE TEST HAVE ITS RIGHT EFFECT ON TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESSES. NOW IT IS IMPORTANT TO KNOW HOW TO PROMOTE WASHBACK. RECENTLY THE FIELD OF ESL/EFL HAS BEGUN TO RECOGNIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDENTS’ ROLE IN THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION. FOR TEACHERS TO BE ABLE TO PROVIDE EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION, IT IS NECESSARY TO BE AWARE OF THE ABILITIES OF THEIR STUDENTS, MAKE CORRECT DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT THEY ARE GOING TO DO DURING THE COURSE OF INSTRUCTION, THE WAY OF PRESENTING THE MATERIALS AND ALSO TO EVALUATE THEMSELVES AND THEIR STUDENTS CORRECTLY IN ORDER TO SUCCEED IN TEACHING. THIS STUDY FOCUSED ON THE INTRODUCTION OF LEARNERS’ BELIEFS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS, AND ALSO THE RELATIONSHIP THAT EXISTS BETWEEN STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE LEARNING BELIEFS AND THE WASHBACK EFFECT OF HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH EXAMINATIONS.IN CONCLUSION, A FRAMEWORK FOR MEASURING WASHBACK EFFECT REQUIRES A MORE COMPREHENSIVE MODEL. LANGUAGE TESTING IS NOT LIMITED TO CLASSROOMS, AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ARE NOT ONLY EDUCATIONAL, BUT ALSO SOCIAL AND POLITICAL. IT IS CLEAR THAT LANGUAGE TESTERS MUST ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR ALL THOSE CONSEQUENCES WHICH THEY ARE AWARE OF.

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