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Title

MONITORING THE LAND DEGRADATION IN MESAN AREA SOUTH EAST OF IRAQ BY REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES

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Abstract

 THIS STUDY AIMED AT MONITORING, MAPPING, AND ASSESSING THE LAND DEGRADATION IN THE SOUTH OF IRAQ. THE COUNTRY SUFFERS SEVERELY DUE TO LAND DEGRADATION AND DESERTIFICATION PROBLEMS, ESPECIALLY IN ITS CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN PARTS. STUDY AREA WAS SELECTED AS PART OF MESAN GOVERNORATE BY 5732 KM2. VEGETATIVE, SALTY, AND WATER INDICES RELATED TO LAND DEGRADATION WERE APPLIED TWO LANDSAT TM AND LAND SAT 8 IMAGERIES TO ASSESS THE EXTENT OF LAND DEGRADATION FOR THE STUDY AREA DURING THE PERIOD FROM 1990 TO 2013. A COMPUTERIZED LAND DEGRADATION SEVERITY ASSESSMENT WAS ADOPTED USING ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 AND ARCGIS 9.3 ENVIRONMENTS TO PROCESS, MANAGE, AND ANALYSIS THE RASTER AND THEMATIC DATASETS. THE INDICES USED IN THIS RESEARCH ARE: THE NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX “NDVI”, THE NORMALIZED DIFFERENTIAL WATER INDEX “NDWI”, AND SALINITY INDEX (SI). NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) WAS USED TO CREATE A MAP AND EXTRACT THE VEGETATION COVER IN THE STUDY AREA. NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE WATER INDEX (NDWI) WAS USED TO CREATE A MAP AND DEFINE WATER BODIES IN THE STUDY AREA. SALINITY INDEX (SI) WAS USED TO CREATE A MAP TO SALTY AREA. IN ORDER TO IDENTIFY THE CHANGES WHICH TOOK PLACE DURING THE TWO PERIODS, THREE METHODS ARE USED FOR THIS PURPOSE, FIRSTLY; DIRECT DETECTION OF CHANGE IN INDICES IMAGES BETWEEN DIFFERENT YEARS WAS ANALYZED BY USING OF VISUAL INTERPRETATION IN ADDITION TO STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. SECONDLY, DIFFERENCING CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS WAS APPLIED TO DETERMINE AND TO ANALYZE THE LAND COVER CHANGES OVER THE TWO PERIODS. THIRD, USING THE SUPERVISED CLASSIFICATION TO CLASSIFY THE IMAGES AND TO ANALYZE THE LAND COVER CHANGES DURING THE TWO PERIODS. FOUR CLASSES OF LAND COVER WERE DELINEATED USING SUPERVISED CLASSIFICATION, AND MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD TECHNIQUE WAS APPLIED FOR THE TWO SCENES DATES, WHERE DEPENDED ON INDICES, MAPS, AND FIELD SURVEY TO CLASSIFY SATELLITE IMAGES. THE ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF THIS CLASSIFICATION IS ABOUT 85 % FOR TM 1990 AND 88 % FOR LAND SAT 8( LCDM) 2013.THE RESULTS SHOWED DECREASED THE LAND DEGRADATION DURING THE PERIOD 1990 TO 2013 BECAUSE OF DECREASING THE BARE LAND AND INCREASING THE VEGETATION COVER IN STUDY AREA.

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