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Title

BIODIVERSITY OF NATURAL ENEMIES OF PISTACHIO PESTS IN IRAN; A PROMISE OR A THREAT?

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Abstract

 ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE MANAGEMENT OF PISTACHIO PESTS NEEDS EXACT KNOWLEDGE OF THE DIVERSITY OF M CONSERVED NATURAL ENEMY SPECIES. IN THIS RESEARCH WE REVIEWED THE EXISTING LITERATURE PUBLISHED BETWEEN 1993 TO 2012 WHICH REPORTING ANY PREDATOR/PARASITOID SPECIES ACTIVE ON EACH OF THE PISTACHIO INSECT PESTS. OUR STUDIES SHOWED THAT SEVERAL SPECIES OF NATURAL ENEMIES FROM AT LEAST FIVE INSECT ORDERS INCLUDING; NEUROPTERA, COLEOPTERA, DIPTERA, HYMENOPTERA AND HEMIPTERA WERE IDENTIFIED IN IRAN PISTACHIO ORCHARDS. THESE SPECIES ARE ACTIVE ON AT LEAST SEVEN GROUPS OF PISTACHIO PESTS INCLUDING COMMON PISTACHIO PSYLLID, PISTACHIO SHOOT BORER, PISTACHIO LEAF BORER, PISTACHIO FRUIT MOTH, PISTACHIO SCALE SPECIES, AND ALSO PISTACHIO INJURIOUS BUGS. AMONG THESE SPECIES, THERE WERE LIMITED STUDIES IN RELATION TO THE POSSIBILITY OF MASS PRODUCTION OF REVIEWED SPECIES; HOWEVER, UNFORTUNATELY NONE OF THESE SPECIES ARE COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED AS BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS IN IRAN.

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