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Title

SOME BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF BLASTOPHAGA PSENES (L.) (HYM. AGAONIDAE), POLLINATOR WASP OF FICUS CARICA IN ESTAHBAN (FARS PROVINCE)

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Abstract

 FICUS CARICA VAR. SMYRICA IS THE RARE FRUIT TREES THAT DEPEND ON POLLINATION WASP BLASTOPHBAGA PSENES FOR FERTILIZATION AND FORMING FRUITS. IN A WAY, ESTAHBAN’S GARDENERS FROM YEARS AGO USED TO BUY CAPRIFIGS FRUITS WITH THESE WASPS FROM OTHER AREAS, AND BY PUTTING THEM IN CANS AND HANGING THROUGH FICUS CARICA TWIGS DID POLLINATING EASILY. THE LENGTH OF BLASTOPHOGA FEMALE WASP IS 2 MM WITH WING BUT MALE WASPS ARE SMALLER THAN FEMALE WASPS. THE LENGTH OF THEIR BODY IS 1.5 MM, WITHOUT WING AND BLIND. BLASTOPHAGA WASPS WHEN EXITING FROM FICUS CARICA FRUITS, SMEARED WITH POLLEN GRAINS, AND WHEN IT TRY TO ENTER TO FICUS CARICA DOING POLLINATION AND THUS SYCONIUMS WOULD FORM. DURING MARCH TO JUNE 2013, AT TIME OF RECEPTIVENESS OF SYCONIUMS BY PUTTING NETS ON TWIGS WITH FRUITS BLASTOPHAGA WAS INTRODUCED TO SYCONIUMS AND LIFE CYCLE THIS WASP STUDIED. RESULTS SHOWED THAT THIS WASP HAS 3 GENERATION WHOLE A YEAR IN ESTAHBAN. IT’S NEED TO MENTION THAT FICUS CARICA HAVE 3 MAIN FRUITS: SPRING, SUMMER AND AUTUMN (WINTER). ONLY SPRING FRUITS HAVE A COMMERCIAL VALUE AND THE OTHER FRUITS ARE IMPORTANT FOR COMPLETING THE GENERATION OF BLASTOPHAGA WASP. BECAUSE OF THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURES OF AUTUMN IS MORE THAN SPRING AND SPRING IS MORE THAN AUTUMN, SO THE LENGTH OF GENERATION PERIOD OF THIS WASP IS LESS IN SUMMER FRUITS. EGGS IN SPRING FRUITS HATCHING IN TWO WEEKS AND DEVELOPING OF LARVAL STAGE LAST BETWEEN 2-3 WEEKS BUT DEVELOPING OF PUPAE STAGE WAS SHORT AND BETWEEN 4-5 DAYS. THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF THIS WASP EGGS, DEPEND ON SEASON OF WASP ACTIVITY IN A WAY THAT EGGS NUMBER IN SPRING IS MORE THAN SUMMER AND AUTUMN. IN SPRING, ADULT AFTER EXITING FROM CAPRIFIGS, ENTER TO FICUS CARICA SYCONIUM AND POLLINATE THEIR FLORETS OR ENTER SUMMER FICUS CARICA SYCONIUM WHICH PROVIDING THEIR LIFE CYCLE CONTINUING. IN THIS STUDY, WE EVALUATED DIFFERENT LIFE CYCLE STAGES OF EGG, LARVAE, PUPAE AND MALE AND FEMALE OF ADULT WASP AND PICTURES OF DEVELOPING STAGE OF THIS WASP AND FICUS CARICA WERE TAKEN. ALSO, POPULATION DENSITY OF WASP IN SUMMER AND AUTUMN EVALUATED IN THOSE SEASONS TOO, AND SHOWED THAT THE NUMBER OF WASP IN SUMMER AND AUTUMN ARE LESS THAN SPRING.

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