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Information Seminar Paper

Title

INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM & MITOCHONDRIA): DISEASES AND PHARMACOLOGICAL TARGETS

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Abstract

 THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) AND MITOCHONDRIA ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT ORGANELLES. ER IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, FOLDING, MATURATION, QUALITY CONTROL, TRAFFICKING, LIPID SYNTHESIS, AND DRUG DETOXIFICATION. VARIOUS FACTORS THAT INTERFERE WITH ER FUNCTION LEAD TO ACCUMULATION OF UNFOLDED PROTEINS, INCLUDING OXIDATIVE STRESS, ISCHEMIA, DISTURBANCE OF CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS, AND OVER EXPRESSION OF NORMAL AND/OR INCORRECTLY FOLDED PROTEINS. THIS PROCESS IS CALLED ER STRESS. DEFECTS IN ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM HOMEOSTASIS AND/OR ER STRESS ARE COMMON OCCURRENCES IN DIFFERENT DISEASES, SUCH AS DIABETES, IN WHICH THE FUNCTION OF ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM IS DISRUPTED. MITOCHONDRIA ARE INVOLVED IN VARIOUS PROCESSES ESSENTIAL FOR CELL SURVIVAL, INCLUDING ENERGY PRODUCTION, REDOX CONTROL, CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CELL DEATH MECHANISMS. INCREASING EVIDENCE INDICATES THAT MANY DISEASES, SUCH AS NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASE, ACTS DIRECTLY ON MITOCHONDRIA AND PROMOTES MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTIONS AND OXIDATIVE DAMAGES. ION CHANNELS HAVE IMPORTANT ROLES IN ABOVE PROCESSES. POTASSIUM CHANNELS SIMILAR TO THOSE IDENTIFIED AT THE PLASMA MEMBRANE HAVE ALREADY BEEN FOUND IN THE INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES WHICH ARE INVOLVED IN THE VOLUME REGULATION, CYTOPROTECTION, ACIDIFICATION, APOPTOSIS, AND HOMEOSTASIS. IT HAS BEEN SUGGESTED THAT INTRACELLULAR ION CHANNEL BEHAVIORS AND STRUCTURES MIGHT BE ALTERED IN DISEASES AND BECOME PROMISING TARGETS FOR THE TREATMENT OF DISEASES. THE PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW IS TO PROVIDE AN UP-TO-DATE OVERVIEW OF THE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES, MOLECULAR IDENTITY, AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF THE ER AND MITOCHONDRIAL ION CHANNELS STUDIED SO FAR AND TO HIGHLIGHT POSSIBLE THERAPEUTIC PERSPECTIVES BASED ON CURRENT INFORMATION.

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