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Title

ELECTROCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF POLYTHIOPHENE ON GRAPHITE AND STAINLESS STEEL ELECTRODES FOR APPLICATION IN ARTIFICIAL MUSCLES

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Abstract

 RECENTLY, MUCH ATTENTION HAS BEEN FOCUSED ON SOFT MATERIALS THAT CAN DIRECTLY CONVERT ELECTRICAL ENERGY INTO MECHANICAL FORCES. CONDUCTINGPOLYMERS (CPS) ARE A TYPE OF ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS (EAP) THAT ARE CONSIDERED AS SOFT SMART MATERIALS SINCE THEY CAN SENSE EXTERNAL STIMULI AND RESPOND ACCORDINGLY. THESE POLYMERS CAN BE APPLIED AS BASE MATERIALS TO FABRICATE ELECTROMECHANICAL ACTUATORS WHICH ARE ABLE TO GENERATE FORCE. DESIGNING ACTUATORS BASED ON CPS POSSESSES ADVANTAGES OVER TRADITIONAL SMART MATERIALS SUCH AS PIEZOELECTRICS, DIELECTRIC ELASTOMERS, AND FERROELECTRIC POLYMERS; INCLUDING LOWER OPERATION VOLTAGE (~3 V) [1], LARGER MECHANICAL STRESS, SUFFICIENT STRAIN VALUES, HIGH REVERSIBILITY, GOOD SAFETYPROPERTIES AND THE POSSIBILITY OF PRECISE CONTROL [2]. THE IONIC AND ELECRONIC CONDUCTIVITY OF CPS PLAY A KEY ROLE IN THE PERFORMANCE OF THE ELECTROMECHANICAL ACTUATORS FABRICATED BASED ON THESE POLYMERS. MANY ATTEMPTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO IMPROVE THE CONDUCTIVITY OF CPS. RESEARCHES HAVE PROVED THAT THE WORKING ELECTRODE MATERIAL AND ITS STRUCTURE AND ALSO THE SOLVENT AND ELECTROLYTE APPLIED IN THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF CPS HAVE A GREAT EFFECT ON THE QUALITY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SYNTHESIZED POLYMER [3-5]. IN CURRENT WORK, POLYTHIOPHENE WAS SYNTHESIZED ON A GRAPHITE AND STAINLESS STEEL ELECTRODES IN ANHYDROUS CH3CN AND IN THE PRESENCE OF LICLO4 AS SUPPORTING ELECTROLYTE TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF ELECTRODE TYPE ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND CONDUCTIVITY OF THE RESULTING POLYMERS. THIS WAS CARRIED OUT BY CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY METHOD IN THE POTENTIAL RANGE OF 1-2 V. THE SYNTHESIZED POLYMERSWAS CHARACTERIZED BY FTIR, SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND ITS CONDUCTIVITY WAS MEASURED.

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