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Title

ADSORPTION STUDIES OF SOME ORGANIC DYES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ON TO GRAPHEME NANO SHEETS

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Abstract

 DYES ARE WIDELY USED IN VARIOUS FIELDS, SUCH AS TEXTILE, PAPER, RUBBER, PLASTIC, LEATHER, COMESTIC, PHARMACEUTICAL AND FOOD INDUSTRIES, BUT THEIR DISCHARGE INTO WATER COULD CAUSE ENVIROMENTAL POLLUTIONS BECAUSE MOST OF THE USED DYES ARE TOXIC, AND SOME ARE CONSIDERED CARCINOGENIC FOR HUMAN HEALTH [1]. THUS, THE TREATMENT OF DYE-CONTAMINATED HOUSEHOLD WASTEWATER AND INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS IS A CHALLENGING TOPIC IN ENVIROMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, AND THE REMOVALS OF THE HAZARDOUS DYE FROM WASTEWATER HAVE ATTRACTED MUCH ATTENTION IN RECENT YEARS. MANY METHODS HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED IN THE DISCOLORATION PROCESSES OF THEM, SUCH AS ADSORPTION, REVERSE OSMOSIS, PRECIPITATION AND ION EXCHANGE [2].AMONG THESE METHODS, ADSORPTION IS THE MOST WIDELY USED METHOD BECAUSE OF THE EASE OF OPERATION AND COMPARABLE LOW COST OF APPLICATION. CARBON MATERIALS ARE WELL KNOWN FOR THEIR HIGH ADSORPTION CAPACITY. GRAPHENE, WHICH IS CONSIDERED AS THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCK OF ALL GRAPHITIC FORMS IS A SINGLE-ATOM-THICK, TWO-DIMENSIONAL CARBON MATERIAL. IN COMPARISON WITH OTHER GRAPHITIC FORMS, GRAPHENE HAS EXTRAORDINARY MECHANICAL, THERMAL AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES SUCH AS ULTRAHIGH SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA, GOOD THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND FAST MOBILITY OF CHARGE CARRIERS [3].IN THIS WORK, GRAPHENE, A NEW MEMBER OF CARBON FAMILY, WAS USED AS AN ADSORBENT TO REMOVE TWO CATIONIC DYES, RHODA MINE B AND MALACHITE GREEN, FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION. THE ADSORPTION KINETICS, ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF THE ADSORBENT AND THE EFFECT PARAMETERS INCLUDING PH, CONTACT TIME, TEMPERATURE AND DOSAGE ON THE ADSORPTION PROPERTIES ONTO GRAPHENE WERE STUDIED. THE ADSORPTION PROCESS WAS FOLLOWED USING UV–VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY, WHILE THE MATERIAL BEFORE AND AFTER ADSORPTION HAD BEEN CHARACTERIZED USING SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC TECHNIQUE. THE ISOTHERM ANALYSIS INDICATED THAT THE THE LANGMUIR ISOTHERM MODEL BETTER THAN THE FREUNDLICH MODEL. THE RESULTANT KINETIC EXPERIMENTAL WERE WELL FITTED BY PSEUDO SECOND –ORDER MODEL. THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES REVEALED THAT THE ADSORPTION REACTION RHODAMINE B ONTO GRAPHENE WAS A SPONTANEOUS AND EXOTHERMIC PROCESS BUT THIS PROCESS WAS ENDOTHERMIC FOR MALACHITE GREEN.

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