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Title

A NOVEL AND GREEN METHOD IN THE SYNTHESIS OF 4TH-GROUP TRANSITIONMETALLO PHTHALO CYANINE DERIVATIVES

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Abstract

 PHTHALO CYANINES HAVE FOUND A WIDE RANGE OF APPLICATION IN THE AREA OF MATERIAL SCIENCE BECAUSE OF THEIR DISTINCT OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES AS WELL AS THEIR THERMAL STABILITY [1]. THESE COMPOUNDS ARE PREPARED BY REACTION BETWEEN METAL SALTS, UREA AND PHTHALONITRILES OR PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE OR PHTHALIMIDE. TYPICALLY, TEMPERATURES AROUND 200 °C AND REACTION TIMES OF SEVERAL HOURS ARE NEEDED FOR SUCH REACTIONS [2].ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS PROMOTES A SIGNIFICANT EFFORT TO FIND AN ALTERNATIVE REACTION MEDIUM IN GREEN CHEMISTRY. IONIC LIQUIDS HAVE BEEN EXTENSIVELY TESTED AS ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY SOLVENTS FOR A LARGE VARIETY OF REACTIONS [3]. MICROWAVE IRRADIATION HAS BEEN USED TO ACCELERATE OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC REACTIONS. THE EFFICIENT HEATING GIVES RISE TO A REMARKABLE RATE ENHANCEMENT [4].THE 4TH –GROUP TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES WITH PHTHALO CYANINES ESPECIALLY ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM PHTHALO CYANINES HAVE INTERESTING PROPERTIES WHICH CAN EASILY BE MODIFIED AT THE CENTRAL METAL ATOM (DUE TO ITS VALANCE, HIGH COORDINATION NUMBERS (UP TO 8), AND HIGH AFFINITY TO OXYGEN) AND AT AXIAL AND PERIPHERAL SUBSTITUENTS [5].IN CONTINUATION OF OUR EFFORT TO INTRODUCE FEASIBLE METHODS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF METALLO PHTHALO CYANINES [6,7], HEREIN WE WISH TO REPORT THE UTILIZATION OF PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE DERIVATIVES, METAL SALTS, UREA, AMMONIUM HEPTAMOLYBDATE AND TETRABUTYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE (TBAB) AS AN IONIC SOLVENT AND EFFICIENT PROMOTER FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF 4TH-GROUP TRANSITION METALLO PHTHALO CYANINES (UNSUBSTITUTED AND PERIPHERAL SUBSTITUTED WITH CHLORO AND NITRO) UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION.IN CONCLUSION, WE HAVE DEVELOPED AN EXTREMELY RAPID, MANIPULATIVELY SIMPLE, INEXPENSIVE AND ESPECIALLY GREEN PROCEDURE FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF 4TH GROUP TRANSITION METALLO PHTHALO CYANINE DERIVATIVES IN HIGH YIELDS USING IONIC LIQUID AND MICROWAVE IRRADIATION.

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