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Title

THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CHANGES IN URBAN NEIGHBORHOOD MANAGEMENT IN IRAN: THE CASE STUDY OF "NEIGHBORHOOD MUNICIPALITY" IN TORBAT HEYDAREEYEH

Writers

IMANI JAJARMI H.

Pages

 Start Page 17 | End Page 29

Abstract

 The main goal of the paper is to study the historical and cultural types of urban NEIGHBORHOOD MANAGEMENT in Iran. Old cities had different neighborhoods based on ethnic, profession and religion and each neighborhood had its own semi-authority and specific physical and social territories. The neighborhood manager was Kadkhoda. His duties were management of public affairs and tax gathering that done under the supervision of Kalantar and Hakem, the main power authorities in tradition cities. The main factors for neighborhoods conflicts and riots were intense internal solidarity in neighborhoods, weakness of intra connections among them and the benefits of city government in people disunity. The Central State interventions in cities and implementation of modernist urban planning policies especially from 1960 fundamentally changed traditional structures of urban life including neighborhoods and their management. We can distinguish two other types of NEIGHBORHOOD MANAGEMENT in recent times. One is emerged in INFORMAL SETTLEMENT for resistance and opposing to formal organizations interventions. The other emerged when the CITY COUNCILs established in 1998. Some councils in cities like Tehran, Sanandaj, Zahedan and Torbat Heydareeyeh experienced participatory NEIGHBORHOOD MANAGEMENT. The study of Torbat's "neighborhood MUNICIPALITY" shows that factors such as the centralized system of urban planning and the gap between urban managers and professionals from one side and ordinary people on the other side reduce the achievements of these experiences.

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