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Title

FAILURE ANALYSIS OF HP40-NB MODIFIED PRIMARY REFORMER TUBE OF AMMONIA PLANT

Pages

 Start Page 269 | End Page 271

Abstract

 Micro-structural failure analysis of the heat resisting HP40 Nb modified alloy was studied by light and electron methods. Samples from the failed reformer furnace tube were cut and prepared for metallographic examination. Examination with electron microscope was carried out with secondary and backscattered electron detectors; x-ray analysis was conducted at the grain boundary areas. In tubes, which are filled with a supported nickel catalyst, methane reacts with steam, carbondioxide and oxygen into synthesis gas. The overall heat of reactions may be positive, zero, or negative, depending on the process conditions.The catalyst plays a key role in developing overheating in the tubes. The catalyst deactivation caused by feeding is heavier than that designed hydrocarbon. Using an unsuitably designedhydrocarbon causes a thin layer of carbon coating on the catalyst surface. Overheating due to catalyst poisoning caused CREEP failure. The presence of intergranular voids in the microstructure of the failed tube seemsto be the result of CREEP phenomenon.

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