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Title

Combination of Experimental Design and Desirability Function as a Genuine Method to Achieve Common Optimal Conditions for the Adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) onto the Poplar Tree Leaves: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

Pages

 Start Page 171 | End Page 187

Abstract

 In this study, the ashes of poplar tree leaves are applied as an efficient, accessible and inexpensive biosorbent for the removal of Heavy metals Pb2+ and Cu2+ in aqueous solutions. In the adsorption processes, the success of the ions removal highly depends on the level of several experimental factors such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and temperature. Therefore, a genuine statistical experiment design method is required to achieve the common experimental conditions at which both ions have been removed from the aqueous solutions to a great degree. Here, the desired common optimal conditions are obtained by the combination of experimental design and Desirability function methods. For a mixture of Pb2+ and Cu2+, the following optimal conditions were achieved at: pH of 5. 4, contact time of 23 min, adsorbent dosage of 0. 14 g, and temperature of 28 ° C; at 150 mg l-1 of Pb2+ and 120 mg l-1 Cu2+. The removal efficiencies of Pb2+ and Cu2+ were 92. 8% and 94. 9%, respectively, indicating the applicability of this biosorbent for the ions removal. Moreover, the equilibrium and Kinetic behavior of the adsorption processes are investigated and then Thermodynamic parameters, Δ G° (kJ mol-1), Δ H (kJ mol-1)° , and Δ S° (kJ mol-1), are evaluated, revealing that both processes are endothermic and spontaneous.

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