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APPLICATIONS OF END-TIDAL CARBON DIOXIDE (ETCO2) MONITORING IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT, A NARRATIVE REVIEW

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Abstract

 Introduction: capnometry, measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, was used for the first time during World War II as a tool for monitoring the internal environment (1). It was used in medicine for the first time in 1950 to measure the amount of CO2 exhaled during anesthesia. However, it was not used in practice until the early 1980s and with development of smaller machines, capnometry officially entered the anesthesia field (2, 3).There are two types of capnograph, “side stream” and “mainstream” (4). In the “mainstream” technique, sampling window is in the ventilator circuit and measures CO2, while in the “side stream”, the gas analyzer is located out of the ventilator circuit. In both types, gas analyzer uses infrared radiation, mass or Raman spectra and a photo acoustic spectra technology (1, 4). Flow measurement equipment is used in volumetric capnograph.

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