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Journal: GEOSCIENCES | Year:1388 | Volume:19 | Issue:73 | Start Page:153 | End Page:164

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Title

DIAGENESIS AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE ZIYARAT FORMATION IN THE TYPE SECTION, TOCHAL, (ALBORZ)

Pages

 Start Page 153 | End Page 164

Abstract

 The ZIYARAT FORMATION is an Upper Paleocene to Middle Eocene carbonate sequences, located in North of Tochal Village (south-east of Tehran), near Emam Zadeh Abdollah. The ZIYARAT FORMATION with the total thickness of 212.5 m conformably overlies the Fajan conglomerate and is overlain by greenish tufaceous siltstone of the Karj Formation. Petrographic studies led to the recognition of 11 MICROFACIES. Different faces and evidences such as the absence of reefal facies, calciturbidite deposits, and widespread tidal flat deposits indicate that the ZIYARAT FORMATION was deposited in a homoclinal carbonate ramp environment. Micritization, cementation, compaction, neomorphism, dissolution, dolomitization, fracturing and silicification are the major diagenetic processes in the ZIYARAT FORMATION, occurring in meteoric and burial diagenetic environments. Major and minor elements and oxygen and carbon isotope values indicate that Ziyarat carbonates were deposited in a shallow warm water tropical environment and original carbonate mineralogy was aragonite. Bivariate plots of Mn versus Sr/Ca and 8180 illustrate that Ziyarat limestones were affected by open system DIAGENESIS with high waterlrock interaction. Early burial diagenetic temperature calculation based on heaviest oxygen isotope values of micrite and 8w of Eocene seawater of 0.85 SMOW, shows that temperature was around 39oC. Cathodluminescence studies of carbonate cements illustrated dull luminescence, because these carbonates affected by both meteoric and burial digenesis, and thus typical yellow to orange luminescence and zonation’s, evidence of meteoric digenesis, are absent. This statement is confirmed by isotropic evidences.

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