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Title

STUDY ON THE CORROSION IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL BRONZES FROM THE CEMETERY OF TOUL-E TALESH, GILAN

Pages

 Start Page 69 | End Page 83

Abstract

 Corrosion of ARCHAEOLOGICAL BRONZES may cause due to effect of manufacturing processes, s well as influence of different factors in the burial environment over the time. Physico-chemical processes occur in the archaeological objects in complex and slow processes as a result of environmental conditions. This paper presents the results of an analytical study on six archaeological metal objects from the archaeological collection found in the cemetery of Toul-e-Talesh, Gilan. The aim of study was to identify CORROSION STRATIGRAPHY based on chemical composition and microscopic appearence of the layers and corrosion products. To study the stratigraphy in the cross-sections of the samples, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), optical microscopy (OM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods were used. Based on the results, the chemical composition of five objects is tin bronze (Cu-Sn) alloy with variable levels of tin and small amounts of lead, zinc, sulfur, iron, arsenic, antimony, phosphorus and silver and one object is made of pure copper. Two main of CORROSION STRATIGRAPHY were observed in the samples: 1) a one-part internal corrosion structure including one, two or three layered structure without the outer layer, and 2) a two-part structure including internal and external corrosion layers. Presence of the internal and external corrosion layers in objects as well as a tin-rich internal corrosion layer can be related to DECUPRIFICATION phenomenon and re-deposition of copper compounds over the originl surface. Basic copper carbonates were found as the main corrosion products in all samples. Uniform structure of the corrosion in the studied samples is comparable with the TYPE I CORROSION in ARCHAEOLOGICAL BRONZES.

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