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Title

ANALYSIS AND EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVE PARAMETERS ON LAND SUBSIDENCE

Writers

RAHNEMA H. | MIRASSI S.

Pages

 Start Page 45 | End Page 53

Abstract

 Land subsidence caused by natural factors and human activities in different parts of the world. This phenomenon consists of collapse or settlement of the surface level that may occur due to some reasons such as the dissolution of subsurface formations, sediment compression, loading, drainage, vibration, subsurface mechanical erosion, shrinkage of clay soils, tectonic subsidence and etc. LAND SUBSIDENCE, as a serious crisis, has been observed in several Iranian plains in recent years. By the continuation of drought and excess withdrawal of water resources, LAND SUBSIDENCE and gaps have slowly extended and it can impose expensive financial and social costs on the government gradually. Water consumption and withdrawal of under groundwater are important factors in the plain of Iran that is very irreparable and alarming. Low rainfall, nonexistence of appropriate nutrition for aquifers, continuous pumping is caused the groundwater level of plain in the most provinces during the past years has always reduced. The most important results of groundwater level dropping that can be noticed are LAND SUBSIDENCE; increase the cost of drilling deeper wells and water pumping, drying and decreasing the water of wells, springs and water quality. On a global scale, hazard of LAND SUBSIDENCE due to dropping water levels has reached its peak between 1950 and 1970, which coincided with industrialization and urbanization growth. This phenomenon has been observed in many parts of the world such as northern Greece, northern Italy, China, Mexico and japan in the past years. Hu et al. (2004) reported these phenomena in over 150 cities worldwide. And also regional LAND SUBSIDENCE related to the groundwater level dropping has been reported in many parts of Iran such as Ardakan plains of Yazd, Moin Abad in Varamin and Shahryar in Tehran. Also, subsidence along with the drop of groundwater levels has been reported in many aquifers such as Sistan Plain, Kashmar plain in Khorasan and Mashhad plain. In this paper was shown that subsidence in recent years is appeared in Fars province due to indiscriminate withdrawal of groundwater, drought and other factors. LAND SUBSIDENCE caused lots of damages to agricultural lands, residential buildings, roads, and other structures and generally created environmental, social and financial problems. In this research a case study was performed on the villages of Marvdasht plain in order to study the effective factors and parameters and evaluate the influence of each one on LAND SUBSIDENCE. And also was examined how to determine and evaluate the main effective parameters such as water levels falling, material and thickness of soil layers especially fine-grained, geotechnical properties of soil layers. Results showed to perform of subsidence calculations the data and requirement information should be prepared accurate and complete as much as possible. It should be noted that the characteristics and different statues of each parameter must be considered. For example, the amount of settlement is different in various depths due to same WATER FALLING or same thickness of layers.. Based on the analysis of the data, the most important factors which caused LAND SUBSIDENCE in Marvdasht plain and damage to rural buildings were water table dropping due to excessive exploitation of water resources, the decrease of precipitation during the studied time and presence of thick clay.

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