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Social Status of Dhimma in the Era of Caliphate of 'Omar-ibn-Khattab(13-23AH) Based on the Theory of Social Exclusion (Case study: Hijaz, Sham and Iraq)


 Start Page 145 | End Page 172


 With the expansion of the conquests of Arab Muslims within the lands inhabited by its inhabitants who belong to other religions, the caliphate system faced a new issue. It was the treatment with a huge number of Jewish, Jewish, Christian, and Zoroastrian inhabitants residing in these lands. What measures should the caliphate system take in confrontation and interaction with them? Since, they had joined the Muslim community as new citizens and, on the other hand, they had accepted the conditions of Dhimma. This research tries to answer the question of the social status of such people in the age of Caliphate of Omar ibn Khattab, and based on what criteria was their social acceptance or rejection in the society. The results of this study indicate that the Omar ibn Khattab’ s treatment with them is completely different in different areas of the Islamic realm, and the temporal and spatial conditions have been completely influential in such encounters. He also took two completely different ways to interact with them. In some areas, he sought to control and monitor social behaviors based on the Qur'anic criteria and the Sira of Prophet (PBUH) and in areas such as Sham, based on social exclusion, limited their access to administrative jobs and imposed some social and religious restrictions based on the theory of social exclusion. Of course, in some areas such encounter was influenced by the geographic conditions of the dominated areas where they lived, and could interact with their followers beyond the boundaries of the Islamic State, and could somehow put the Islamic society at risk.


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