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Title

EFFECTS OF BIOLOGICAL FERTILIZERS ON YIELD AND CONCENTRATIONS OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN ORGANS OF TOMATO UNDER CADMIUM STRESS

Writers

NEMATI A. | GOLCHIN A.

Pages

 Start Page 45 | End Page 64

Abstract

 Background and Objectives: Soil pollution by heavy elements such as CADMIUM, zinc and lead, because of adverse effects of the elements on human health and living organisms, have been a matter of concern in recent decades. Lots of effort has been made to block the entrance of these elements into natural and biological cycles. For this purpose, different methods for decreasing the availability of the elements have been assessed and chemical and physical approaches have been used. But the methods are expensive and sometimes destroy the physical and chemical properties of soils. Thus, it is better to use biological methods to decrease the availability of heavy metals in soils since these methods are inexpensive and environmentally friendly.Materials and Methods: An experiment was aimed to assess the effects of BIOLOGICAL FERTILIZERS on yield and yield components of TOMATO under CADMIUM stress. This experiment was factorial and had a completely randomized design and three replications. Three combinations of BIOLOGICAL FERTILIZERS including M1: Azotobacter bacteria + Mycorrhizal fungi +Azosperillium bacteria, M2: Mycorrhizal fungi + Bacillus bacteria + Pseudomonas bacteria + Azotobacter bacteria, M3: Pseudomonas bacteria + Azotobacter bacteria + Mycorrhizal fungi and M0: treatment without BIOLOGICAL FERTILIZERS (control) was used. The levels of soil CADMIUM were 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg Cd/kg soil.Results: The results of this study showed that application of BIOLOGICAL FERTILIZERS increased yield and growth indices of TOMATO and caused the concentrations of MICRONUTRIENTS to increase in aerial part and the root of this plant. The highest yield was obtained from the M1 treatment, so that it was significantly different from the other treatments. By contrast the M3 treatment was not significantly different from the control. The yield and growth indices of TOMATO plant decreased as the levels of soil CADMIUM increased. The CADMIUM level of 80 mg Cd/kg soil decreased TOMATO yield by 67% compared with control.Conclusion: The results of this research showed that inoculation of soils with BIOLOGICAL FERTILIZERS decreased the adverse effects of CADMIUM on TOMATO plants and due to higher yield and performance of the M1 treatment, this treatment is recommended for decreasing the adverse effects of CADMIUM in polluted soils.

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