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Predicative Possession in Shahmirzadi Language: A typological Survey


 Start Page 171 | End Page 199


 1. Introduction: Possession is one of the universals in linguistics; it can be encoded in nominative and predicative forms. Stassen (2009) proposed four types of predicative Possession: locative Possession, ‘ with’ Possession, topic Possession and 'have' Possession. Present article studies predicative Possession construction in Shahmirzadi Language based on typological-functional approach; it tries to answer this question: “ which types of predicative Possession strategies are used in Shahmirzadi Language? A questionnaire was prepared for this survey and data was gathered by interviewing native speakers of Shahmirzadi. The questionnaire contains 53 sentences which are positive and includes predicative Possessions with “ be” and “ have” . Types of predicative Possession in Shahmirzadi As mentioned previously, Stassen (2009) proposed four types of predicative Possession: 1-Locative Possession: At/ to PR (there) is/exist a PE 2-“ with” Possession: PR is/exist with a PE 3-Topic Possession: (As for) PR, PE is/exist 4-“ have” Possession: PR has a PE Analysis of the collected data and examination of Stassen’ s proposed classification pertaining to predicative Possession, indicate that Shahmirzadi Language chooses three types of predicative Possession construction which are provided in theoretical framework of the article; there is no topic Possession in Shahmirzadi Language and according to the statistical analysis of the results, the speakers tend to use ‘ have’ Possession more than locative and ‘ with’ Possession, therefore the frequency of 'have' Possession is more than other types. Some data in Shahmirzadi Possession predicative are as follows: Table 1-Shahmirzadi data Types of predicative Possession Shahmirzadi English Locative ʔ æ me xune dæ læ yæ k xü rde ʔ ö taq dæ ræ We have a small room in our house. With yæ k piremæ rd dæ ræ ba sæ fə d-ə mi ö dæ raz-e riš The old man has white hair and long beard. Topic -- have ʔ in š æ hr č æ n-ta mæ drə sə dan-æ This city has some schools. Conclusion and discussion Having studied different aspects of examples and data in corpus, we came up with the following results: 1-Locative Possession is used in Shahmirzadi Language but the speakers tend to convert locative Possession to “ have” Possession. They convert 84% of locative Possession data to “ have” Possession. The Possessee is the subject of the sentence and the possessor is oblique. The oblique case is shown by the postposition in this language. 2-Although the frequency of “ with” Possession in this language is very low, this type of predicative Possession is present in Shahmirzadi anyway. The speakers tend to convert 70% 0f “ with” Possession data to “ have” Possession; in this type the possessor is the subject of the sentence and the possessee has oblique case. 3-There is no topic Possession in Shahmirzadi Language. 4-Statistical analysis of “ have” Possession in corpus shows that the frequency of this type of Possession is high in Shahmirzadi and the speakers tend to convert other types to this type of predicative Possession; in this type the possessor is the subject/agent and the possessee is object/patient of the sentence. Table 2-The semantic map of predicative in Shahmirzadi Language Have Topic With (commitive) Locative


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