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Title

STUDY OF SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS UNDER NACL AND CACL2 SALINITY STRESS

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 Start Page 3 | End Page 24

Abstract

 In order to study of some physiological characteristics of two WHEAT cultivars under SALINITY STRESS this experiment was performed as a factorial test based on completely randomized design with three replications in greenhouse of agriculture faculty of Shahid Chamran University during 2008-2009. In this experiment, two factors were analyzed.First factor was cultivar, including Star and Chamran cultivars and the second factor, irrigation with saline water with three levels, including normal water and salt water (100 and 200 mM) with an equal quantity of NaCl and CaCl2 . The results showed that the most reduction in dry matter was achieved in second level of stress (200 mM) in Star cultivar. while salt stress was soaring, STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE in both studied cultivars was decreased further. Maximum reduction in STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE was observed in the second level of stress in Star cultivar.Intensifying of Stress levels caused the increase in soluble sugars accumulation in both cultivars but there were no differences between cultivars.By salinity treatment, PROLINE accumulation significantly increased in in both studied cultivars. Both cultivars showed high ability to maintain RWC percentage, but by second level of stress; cultivars resistance were broken and RWC percentage, significantly decreased.The highest SODIUM content was observed in S2 of Chamran variety and the lowest level of SODIUM was observed in normal condition by Chamran cultivar.An increase in the ratio of K/Na significantly caused rising in SPAD value, while reducting RWC. In S1 condition, increasing of SODIUM concentration in plant leaves caused a sharp decline in the ratio of K/Na and the SPAD value (r2=-0.828**). Meanwhile this ratio with increasing POTASSIUM content increased (r2= 0.937**) and a rise in the ratio of K/Na led to raise of SPAD value. In normal conditions, as a result of elevating POTASSIUM, sugar transport was done in a better way, but in contrary, in severe stress conditions, increasing the amount of POTASSIUM, could not cause better sugar transport. It might be due to the lack of appropriate performance of sugar pumps because of damage of extreme salinity sress (200 mM).

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