Journal Paper

Paper Information

Journal: LITERARY CRITICISM | Year:1387 | Volume:1 | Issue:3 | Start Page:29 | End Page:58

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Information Journal Paper

Title

DISCOURSE PRESENTATION IN LITERARY AND NON- LITERARY WRITTEN NARRATIVES

Writers

RAHGOUY FARIDEH

Pages

 Start Page 29 | End Page 58

Abstract

 Polyphonic discourse is closely linked to Bakhtin's theory about "Polyphony". Although the theory is rather familiar in Iran, its implications in different fields such as philosophy, culture, language, and literature is not that clear. The present article considers Bakhtin’s theory as one consequence of using “Free Indirect” DISCOURSE PRESENTATION mode which is one among the other modes. By “DISCOURSE PRESENTATION” here, I mean the presentation of characters’ speech (writing) and thought in both written fictional and non-fictional narratives. There are some possibilities available for writers (reporters) to present people’s speech and thought. The present article describes five categories, without giving any special preference to each. Semino and Short’s model of Speech, Writing and Thought Presentation (SW& TP) provides the base for the description. The categories are as follows: narrator's representation of voice Narrator's representation of writing Internal narration Narrator's representation of speech acts Narrator's representation of Writing acts Narrator's representation of thought acts Indirect speech Indirect writing Indirect thought Free indirect speech Free indirect writing Free indirect thought Direct speech Free direct speech Direct writing Free direct writing Direct thought Free direct thought The categories are of fine gradations as we move along the cline of DISCOURSE PRESENTATION, from the more bound (to the narrator's interference) to the more free end, where the narrator's interference seems to become less and less, until, in the most extreme version (free direct discourse), he apparently leaves the characters to talk entirely on their own. While there is formal parallelism between the categories in three scales of speech, writing and thought, the functional variations are noticeable. The corpus analyzed here, contains 30 text samples of approximately 2, 000 words each, of 20th century written Iranian Farsi, in order to throw light on DISCOURSE PRESENTATION theory and on how patterns of DISCOURSE PRESENTATION vary in literary and non-literary written narratives, on the one hand, and in long stories and short stories, on the other.

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