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Title

PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF NANO-PAPER FROM COTTON LINTER BY PARTIAL DISSOLUTION METHOD

Pages

 Start Page 129 | End Page 141

Abstract

 Background and objectives: The use of cellulose at nanoscale has been greatly studied for the production of biological compounds due to its high strength, low weight and biodegradability.Nanostructures are synthesized through two mechanisms including top-down and bottom-up approaches. In this study, top-down PARTIAL DISSOLUTION was used as a simple and fast technique to produce nano cellulose. By controlling dissolution parameters such as time, the solvent interrupts the adjacent nanofibrils linking which is supplied through hydrogen bonds, and solves partially outer chains of nanofibril. During solvent rinsing, the partially dissolved chains resolidified and welded each other, making consolidated structure in which the main components are undissolved native nanofibrils surrounded by cellulose type II and non-crystalline cellulose.Because of this, the final film was named Nano-paper. This study considers the characteristics of fully BIOCOMPATIBLE Nano-paper directly produced from COTTON LINTER fibers by PARTIAL DISSOLUTION method.Materials and Methods: Refining the COTTON LINTER fibers was done in three steps; pneumatic, washing with hot water followed by treating with sodium hydroxide. The handsheets were made by TAPPI standard method. The PARTIAL DISSOLUTIONs of papers with high content of alpha cellulose were done in the solvent N, N-dimethyl acetamide/ 9% lithium chloride (DMAC/LiCl) and translucent cellulose Nano-paper was obtained through pressing and drying the resulting gel. To evaluate the properties of the Nano-paper, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, mechanical properties and thermal gravimetric analysis were used.Results: The diameter of undissolved nanofibrils in Nano-paper fell between 60 and 66 nm.Electron micrographs showed that Nano-paper had more uniformity than paper. VISUAL TRANSPARENCY (back view) of Nano-paper was significant due to the liberalization of cellulose nanostructures, the increase of uniformity and density, the loss of surface roughness and the increase of light transmission. The results of tensile properties showed that the Nano-paper tensile stress was higher than that of paper. Paper and Nano-paper tensile stresses were 8.02 and 27.28 MPa, respectively and tensile modulus elasticities were 0.483 and 0.649 GPa, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of paper matched cellulose type I. During PARTIAL DISSOLUTION/re-solidification cellulose type II was appeared and non-crystalline phase increased judging from XRD data. The crystallinity degree of paper and Nano-paper were measured 84.9 and 54.89%, respectively. The crystallite size of paper and Nano-paper obtained 6.44 and 2.55 nm, respectively. The thermal stability of Nano-paper was less than that of paper.Conclusions: In Nano-paper structure, undesolved cellulose type Iβ (undesolved nanofibrils) played reinforcing a phase role, and cellulose type II and the amorphous cellulose formed the matrix phase.Partial dissolution destroyed part of the crystals and after solvent rinsing and re-solidification, some parts of the amorphous chains were rearranged to form crystals of cellulose type II. Finally, a tough translucent Nano-paper was produced by creating consolidated nano structures. The reduction of cellulose crystallinity in Nano-paper resulted in the loss of thermal stability in Nano-paper.

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