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Title

EFFECT OF ACID EXTRACTION CONDITIONS ON YIELD AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF PECTIN EXTRACTED FROM SOUR ORANGE PEEL

Pages

 Start Page 231 | End Page 242

Abstract

 Sour orange is one amongst the native fruits to Iran, widely used in food industry, as well as in medicine and cosmetics. SOUR ORANGE PEEL is a rich source of PECTIN, but mostly discarded as waste. Throughout the present research, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) of Box-Behnken design was employed to study, and optimizes the effects of some of the independent variables (temperature, time and pH) on the yield and as well on the DEGREE OF ESTERIFICATION of PECTIN extracted. The percentage of galacturonic acid, emulsifying properties, the VISCOSITY and FT-IR spectra of the PECTIN were compared with those determined in optimal conditions. The results showed, extraction efficiency, and the DEGREE OF ESTERIFICATION of PECTIN extracted within various conditions is varied within the ranges of 5-27.5 and 6.6-46.5, respectively. The highest yield pertaining to PECTIN (28.78) was obtained at a temperature of 95oC, within duration of 90 min and pH of 1.5. PECTIN extracted in optimal conditions was of a DEGREE OF ESTERIFICATION of 24.6%, yield of galacturonic acid of 75.5%, emulsifying activity of 45.6% and suitable EMULSION stability. As well, the flow behavior is observed Newtonian in low concentrations (≤ 1 %w/v), but behavior is changed (with increasing concentration) from Newtonian to pseudoplastic.

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