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Title

IMMUNE RESPONSES INVOLVED IN MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION

Pages

 Start Page 89 | End Page 99

Keywords

CD8+T CELLSQ1
CD4+T CELLQ1

Abstract

 Background and Objectives: MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Approximately one-third of the world's population is infected with M. tuberculosis. Despite the availability of drug and vaccine, it remains one of the leading causes of death in humans especially in developing countries. Epidemiological studies have indicated that only 10-30% of people exposed to tubercle bacillus are infected with M. tuberculosis, and at least 90% of the infected people finally do not acquire TB. The studies have indicated that the host efficient immune system has essential roles in the control of TB infection such that the highest rate of mortality and morbidity is seen in immunocompromised patients such as people infected with HIV.M. tuberculosis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium. It enters the body mainly through the respiratory tract and alveolar macrophages combat this pathogen most commonly. In addition to alveolar macrophages, various T-cell subpopulations need to be activated to overcome this bacterium's resistance to the host defense systems. CD4+T cells, through production of several cytokines such as IFN-g and TNF-a, and CD8+T cells, through cytotoxic activities and induction of apoptosis in infected cells, play critical roles in inducing appropriate immune responses against M. tuberculosis.Although cell-mediated IMMUNITY is the cornerstone of host responses against TB and the recent studies have provided evidence for the importance of HUMORAL and INNATE immune system in the control of TB, a profound understanding of the immune responses would provide a basis for development of new generations of vaccines and drugs. The present study addresses immune responses involved in M. tuberculosis infection.

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