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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    37
  • Start Page: 

    103
  • End Page: 

    110
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    2
  • Views: 

    421
  • Downloads: 

    215
Abstract: 

This article is a semiotic analysis on a miniature painting of “Shahnameh Tahmasbi”- “Zal is sighted by a Caravan” or “Zal and Simurgh” painted by Khaje Abdul-Aziz in Tbriz style of Safavi period. At first a primary definition of semiotics, taken as an analytical method, has the potentiality to carry out interpreting deferent textual subjects. A kind of method of structuralism on cultural semiotics introduced by ”Yuri Lotman” in Moscow-Tartu school of semiotical studies, been taken as assistance to fulfill above purpose, which is based on studying paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations as well as denotations and connotations of the picture signs leading to a full explication of the painting. Levi Strauss considers semiotics to study different ways of transcending nature to the cultural situation from the classic period, and the importance of the dual contradictions in art interpretation has been focoused on. The super-model of Lotman could be divided into three models: First, nature as natural environment of human life, as an opposite for culture or super natural aspect of human life. The second, nature as 'Caos' or disarrangement, as an opposite to culture as 'Kosmos' or arrangement And the third, nature as an object of savagery, in opposition with culture as self-condition, or in another word, self-other opposition.The result of this investigation framed within the coordinative relationship of nature and culture explains two generally different spaces of realism and mysticism. The corresponding links of pictorial and verbal signs help to understand how the temporal syntax of narration transforms to a kind of spatial syntax. Thus, the linguistic signs and rhetorical devices of poem, become translated to different states of simple pictorial signs while there would be a decrease of amount in literature an increasing happen in favor of pictorial text. ''Zal'' as ''Actant'' of the narration, connects the natural aspect of the picture which entails in this case, supernatural as well as mythical to the cultural aspect that seems realistic, and make a balance in the contradiction of these natural and cultural aspects, and connects the imagination atmosphere to the terrestrial space. The comparison between verbal and visual signs shows that the painter has a symbolic and reductional approach toward the text through translating the metaphors and poetical descriptions into conditional and clear color signs, using icons, symbols, and indexes for suggesting the mystical and epical space of the story, and translates the precious poems of shahnameh in a conventional but innovative way. In order to contemplate the pictorial system of the painting, signs of nature system, including elements of natural environment and signs of culture system, containing individuals and characters here, have to be considerated. The main speciality of this picture is the domination of natural space upon cultural one. At the final, there be explored how the image of “Zal” the main hero and Actant of the narration, reflects the cohensive unification of contradictory aspects of the nature and culture. 

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Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    37
  • Start Page: 

    111
  • End Page: 

    121
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    1
  • Views: 

    900
  • Downloads: 

    256
Abstract: 

The presence of symbols in man’s history has followed certain beliefs. Today, such beliefs have changed into deep concepts, which have been realized in different forms including sign design. The aim of this study is to find the most frequently-used plant symbols in the past three decades. In the present paper, by using library resources and visual content analytical method as well as the graphical dimensions of signs, the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the most frequently-used plant symbols are discussed in today’s community. The statistical community being electively studied includes 235 contemporary signs, which have been used in the past 30 years. A common characteristic of all these signs is the application of plant symbols in design. There are many factors influencing the creation of a sign: customer’s taste, practice, designer’s innovation and imagination. All these factors are outlined according to the sufficient information of the current condition in order to achieve the ideal future condition. Permanency in future time is a privilege for a sign as well as a success for the designer. The emergence of a permanent (an eternal) identity will be made possible through a brief, expressive, distinguished and meaningful sign. The results show that plant symbols have more tended to abstraction method among the studied signs. In addition to flower patterns, in using Eslimi motif, designers have shown its potential capability in various cultural, social, industrial, political and commercial applications in maximum. In subject analysis, the most frequent application of such symbols is also observed in cultural aspects, which are usually combined with pictures or texts. The statistical community studied in tree section:- Pictorial design; “image+image” , -Text combined with pictorial design; “image +Text”, -Logo or monogram , More than half of the signs of this statistical community are designed by integrating “image+image”, in which the integrated symbols have had the most applications with Eslimi designs. The manufacturing signs of agriculture category have had more emphasis in form of “leaf” as the symbol of abundance, growth and fertility. In the past three decades, Eslimi designs are mostly applied in cultural areas. In designing social signs related to welfare social centers, “flowers” have more applications. In categorizing signs, it is obviously seen that signs are mostly in abstract forms, rather getting distance from realism. In this regard, it is worth to consider the Iranian artists’ approach to abstraction, which could be a remarkable conclusion for analyzing artistic movements of contemporary Iranian graphics, while being generalized to other areas of art and sociology. 

Yearly Impact:  

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Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    37
  • Start Page: 

    17
  • End Page: 

    26
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    2
  • Views: 

    263
  • Downloads: 

    147
Abstract: 

Undesirable urban density is one of the basic today’s problems which can can cause several disorders of urban services, like intense traffic, and so on. Although, the above mentioned disorders exist in most of the available cities in Iran, it is possible to make a more desirable environment for the citizens by organizing the related elements and factors. In fact density is a disorder which exists in all cities that makes so many effects and consequences in all social, economic and physical realm. For instance, its negative effect on traffic in the cities, its undesirable impact on decreasing. percapita urban services impact on urban facilities disorders (water, electricity, gas, telephone, etc…).then increasing social cultural and mental disorders of society, They are so clear that it is no need of numbers. By observing the cities, their defects are clearly distinct. And the necessity of solving the problem will be recommended. The goal of this paper is the modeling of the desirable urban density by using comprehensive legal and technical considerations which can be adopted in a land information system. The model, which takes into account several geometrical and descriptive facilities for clarifying the urban density factors, provides concerned decision makes with the information very quickly and accurately. This will help them to understand the side effects of the undesirable density and to prevent the its consequences. Although several urban matters and legal information systems have been assessed in previous literature, but in particular, no major special report action have been delivered regarding urban density. Ofcourse some researches have done by Laurini over urban information system in relation with planned concepts. The model analytically presents useful results and consequences in urban density by quantifying the main elements of spatial, social, and economical factors. A number of parameters have been incorporated in the density optimization model. They include the mean of major land use per capita, traffic volume, existing building density, urban texture, available urban infrastructure, socio-economic indexes, urban balance (landscape), development standards and policies (regarding different urban districts). Which have been analyzed and evaluated. The above mentioned indexes have been collated to present and optimum urban density in a medium scale city of Khomeinishahr on Isfahan suburbs in central part of location, Isfahan. The results showed that the model has yielded suitable responses in different manners by imposing different coefficients on mentioned indexes. At last, it is a desirable conclusion about mpdel as for example the coefficient related completely in modal by the related coefficient in traffic index. so the experts can observe the difference between topic and ordinary state . A comparison of the two urban accumulation structures of the model (existing situation and our proposed model) shows that the usefulness of the model is undeniable. The statistical outcome of the proposed model supposes the objection of the research to make a property balance in urban density considering a number of the employed constraints and functions. The model was successfully tested in Khomeinishahr. Although the model has been applied to a medium scale city, it can be used for larger cities with some minor modifications which are the further step of this research. 

Yearly Impact:  

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Writer: 

MASAELI S.

Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    37
  • Start Page: 

    27
  • End Page: 

    38
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    3
  • Views: 

    322
  • Downloads: 

    126
Abstract: 

According to Islamic thought, reaching to God’s ideal perfection is a principal that is naturally a part of human essence. Traditional house considers this fact and thus, is familiar to human nature. Therefore, it is not possible to define the traditional house only based on structure and geometry and even form; instead, the meanings go beyond them. Hidden meanings are based on spiritual realities and invisible; but, can be visualized via different features created by the Allah in the world of being. Different elements of the traditional house surround a central yard and this is not due to the space function or climate needs, but is the result of the architects’ understanding of the spiritual facts. By forming the formless meanings, traditional architects create architectural forms based on their understanding from the great world and thus, generate structures according to the God’s willing. The natural characteristics of the human being that affect the traditional house include the inclination to realism and perfection, creation, blessing and virtue, beauty and spiritual love and worship. Analysis of the mentioned inclinations clarifies the hidden map as the result of religious beliefs in traditional house and enables understanding of the invisible layers of thought. When the traditional architect seeks the truth, he reaches to God’s ideal perfection and it is in this state that he is endowed to God’s attributes including the power of creation, differentiation, and illustration. The architect creates in such a way that the components differ from each other and they all illustrate the beauty of God’s almighty. The beauty is in both outer face and spirit. By means of his character originated from God, traditional architect bridges the sensible and the rational worlds. Therefore, he reflects the perfection of the rational world into the sensible one. In other words, the architect transfers the God’s perfection to land’s architecture by help of his spirit’s mirror. This makes the traditional architecture perfect since it has originated from God’s perfection. As the result, in traditional architecture, the materialistic face of the objects unifies with their spiritual character and thus, the objects appear in their real face. The traditional architect points out to the invisible facts of the world of being in the meanings of the architecture. The decent architecture thus is the one that reconciles best the two visible and hidden faces. The paper examines twenty samples of Kerman’s traditional houses and reveals that the invisible face of the traditional house is not measurable with the physical elements and quantity scales; but is evaluated by means of spiritual soul originated from the religion and the perfectionism principle. It is shown that the traditional house has binary maps; a visible one that is originated from the functional needs of its residents and a hidden map that reflects the spiritual knowledge of its architecture. While being independent, the two maps overlap perfectly in responding to the kind of life expected from it. The traditional house reaches to its perfection when the two maps overlap completely and its invisible face turns into the divine features. 

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Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    37
  • Start Page: 

    39
  • End Page: 

    48
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    2
  • Views: 

    228
  • Downloads: 

    130
Abstract: 

Timche is the symbol of Irans`Architecture masters. It's considered as a reflection or presentation of Iranian art parade. The originality concealed in its chronic structure, refers to the tale of Iran's extensive culture. Considering the undeniable dependence of Timche on commercial situations of bazzar through the history, expecting a steady presence of Timche as a commercial building is obviously logical. Herein, travel accounts and historical documents could be a good proof of the subject. But, despite the stagnancy of the Iranian culture in Ghajarid era, in all economic, social and other aspects, and in spite of the insufficiency, existing in the reign, we can express that the architecture of Timche, as a covered place in the Iranian bazaar, built for offering more valuable stuffs, is considered as the most astonishing masterpiece of public architecture ever built in Iranian economic textures. During this period, a high variety of Timche patterns, created by Iranian architecture masters. One of the main reasons of this magnificence could be the increase in the importation of foreign goods during the first half of Ghajarid era. This could make the Iranian Timche as a field of competition between different foreigner merchants, which could as well influence the prosperity of Timche, especially in the first half of Ghajarid era. Considering the lack of researches on this subject, this paper tries to peruse the change in proportional and numeral systems of Iranian Timche, based on time and climate variables. In the first place, the samples' numeral traits as: Coincidence of symmetry axes in Timche and Sara, Parallel symmetry axes in Timche and its chambers and the connection of Timche with Sara and Bazaar are studied. Besides, dimensions and the proportion of 12 Timche samples, picked from 6 Iranian cities, (Ghazvin, Arak, Tabriz, Kashan, Esfehan and Yazd) are analyzed. The samples are equally chosen from two different climatic regions (Hot and dry, Cold and dry) and two half of Ghajarid era. (1815-1892) and (1892-1969). In fact, the fluency and unique process of Iran`s art and architecture disrupted in the period after Mohammad shah, due to blindly imitation of the western culture. The situation aggravated at the time of Naser-E-Din shah. Concerning the mentioned events, the authors of this article considered the halves of Ghajarid era as a momentous factor influencing the architecture of Timche as well. Statistical analyses considering (Pvalue<0.05), shows a meaningful difference in reduction of the dimensions in the second half of Ghajarid era. Considering that the 6 samples chosen from the first half of Ghajarid reign are of the cold and dry climate, we expected the dimensions of this period to be less than the second half chosen-samples of hot and dry regions. This opposition shows the weak relative status of climate and Numeral factors in design of the Iranian timche in ghajarid era. Proofing that the reduction is not directly related to the climatic changes, we can concern the bad economic and social status in the second half of Ghajarid era as resulted in diminution of the dimensions as well. 

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Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    37
  • Start Page: 

    49
  • End Page: 

    58
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    1
  • Views: 

    417
  • Downloads: 

    231
Abstract: 

Today an onthological concern in humanities and architectural theories is considered and in this respect the return to nature is focused. This fact in architecture is mostly reflected on the relationship of architecture with physical nature. It seems that ‘essence’ as one of the meanings of ‘nature’ is less valued. The major meaning of ‘essence’ is introduced as the ‘intrinsic or indispensable properties that serve to characterize or identify something’; but the reflection of this concept in architectural space is not clear. On the other hand, the notion of ‘essence’ in the meaning and on its influence on ‘architectural space’ cannot be separated from essential values in human nature. Truth, goodness, beauty, wholeness, aliveness, perfection, justice, order, simplicity and richness can be considered as the main charecteristics of human being. This article is intended to present the necessity of understanding the very unique quality of space which is considered to be present in ‘essence of architectural space’. Also it is intended to prepare the main criteria and factors in this undestanding. The research method in this article is based on qualitative approach with logical argumentation in the architectural theories. Due to this necessity, this article is presented in three main sections. The first part is to explain the transformation of the meaning of nature in history; also the relationship of essence and nature is regarded. In the next chapter the main approaches in the understanding of essence of architectural space are suggested. These approaches are presented as understanding essence of architectural space based on natural human needs and desires, similar qualities in vernacular architecture, etymological term of essence, phenomenological approaches of architectural space, nature-based approaches and also its relation with form. Consequently in the third chapter, the relationship of this quality of space with architectural approaches based on nature is analyzed. In the conclusion it is mentioned that the search for true and pure qualities in architectural space which is arisen from natural human needs can be conceived as essence of architectural space. This search in architectural theories is reflected via different references. With regard to this approach it can be focused that how this quality is understood differently in the recent theories after 1900’s; organicism, structuralism, contextualism, regionalism theories and even sustainability, all seem to follow common objectives. In the 19th century organicism, this notion with regard to religion is reflected on the unity with nature. The main concepts of organicism in the 20th century are categorized as unity between parts and whole, natural forms and relation to physical nature. In the regionalism, return to regional characteristics is focused. Also sturacture as a whole being, order in Louis Kahn's idea and life in Alexander's definition are considered as the concepts in deeper level of relationship with nature. Sometimes the search for this essential quality of space is converted to superficial and artifitial interpretation of nature; in some other attitudes nature is respected as a sacred and metaphysical concept which has influenced in the harmony between architect's mind and nature. 

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Writer: 

MIRMOGHTADAEE M.

Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    37
  • Start Page: 

    5
  • End Page: 

    16
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    5
  • Views: 

    649
  • Downloads: 

    143
Abstract: 

The present research is done to identify physical and social criteria which have influences on the formation and remembrance of collective memory of the city, with the emphasis on city of Tehran. Literature review indicates that the evaluation criteria are divided into two major groups: "possibility of events and social interactions to take place", and "possibility of remembering and recording of collective memory". Each group is then subdivided into two minor parts: "social and political structure" and "spatial and physical structure". Performance criteria influencing on "possibility of events and social interactions to take place", related to "social and political structure" of the city are: social and environmental security, ethnic variety, social classes, historic events, public ceremonies; and performance criteria influencing on "spatial and physical structure" are: access to public places and resorts in both city and neighborhood scales. Similarly, performance criteria influencing on "possibility of remembering and recording of collective memory", related to "social and political structure" of the city are: place bond and attachment, residence continuity, and position of city in literature and cinema; and performance criteria influencing on "spatial and physical structure" are: conservation of historic areas, old buildings and neighborhoods, urban reminders, and local names. Tehran is known by the urban planners, architects and even ordinary people as a city of change without any memory or reminder of the past. This could be considered as an un-proved statement, which its truth is being examined according to the recommended criteria and research method of the paper. Doing so, a case study on Tehran is done by collecting variable documents on other researches to evaluate each criterion accordingly. The evaluation is done through asking a question at the beginning of each related section, and finding the answer at the end. The relationships between mentioned criteria are introduced in a table, and the intensity of their interrelationship is marked by the author, according to the analytical results of the text. The primarily results of this text analyze, indicated that social security and access to variable public spaces in city scale are important factors in formation of collective memory. Similarly, conservation of historic areas, old buildings and neighborhoods, urban reminders, and local names, are important in remembering and recording of collective memory. The research results have been applied to introduce planning recommendation through SWOT method. It indicated that considering the political and social significance of Tehran (as the capital city and a scene for historic and social events to take place, and the place for coming together of people from different parts of the country), and its physical and spatial characteristics (public spaces and local gathering areas), it has great potentials in collective memory formation. However, due to social and environmental insecurity, rapid changes in the city and neighborhoods built form, and constant population movement; collective memory could not be recorded or remembered easily. In another word, Tehran is the city of short term memories, as the traces of old events are rapidly being removed. 

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Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    37
  • Start Page: 

    59
  • End Page: 

    68
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    1
  • Views: 

    559
  • Downloads: 

    211
Abstract: 

It is believed that architectural education is depended on numerous parameters which are necessary to be recognized. In the process of architectural education, comprehending the design problem is a critical stage especially for the novice designers, giving them necessary first insight to start problem solving during the design process. This paper is going to investigate the most important parameters affecting on comprehending the design problem in the initial stages of design process in schools of architecture. The importance of these parameters is to facilitate comprehending the design problem which is in turn, affecting the process of problem solving and making the necessary first insight for the beginners. This paper takes a specific approach to clarify the most important parameters such as explanation the design problem by teacher, observing and seeking the similar examples, student-teacher interactions, student-student interactions, investigating the different aspects of the design problem, performing initial short term designing and other important criteria and access their importance during initial stages of problem solving. In this research the main focus is considered during the initial sessions of explaining the design problem and the results are expected to introduce and offer effective approaches for the design problem to be comprehended properly. Furthermore, the target population is the students educating architecture in the first or second years of education in schools of architecture. The importance of this period of education is that the main personality of a designer is made in this critical time in direct relationship to what she/he experiences. The survey population is in related to target population concluding 40 students considered from two different schools of architecture, but in similar program. In brief, the research concludes four main stages: First, the design process is considered as innovative problem-solving based on related theories and its specific aspects are reviewed. Second, in an initial stage, the most effective parameters are going to be clarified and divided in two main groups as: obvious parameters and none-obvious parameters. It should be considered that the mentioned clarification is performed based on a pre-research stage in which initial interviewing with professional designers and teachers made the main problem to be clear. In third stage, the main analysis of parameters is done by considering and studying two main groups of students from two different schools. In this stage the results of analysis are shown in the related tables. The last stage concludes examination of the results by considering another group of students during a semester and based on this stage, main results are derived. Finally based on the results of this research, three main approaches are recognized for design problem to be explained so that facilitate comprehending it and prepare proper conditions for the problem solving process to begin. They are summarized as: Brain storming, Observation and Studying similar examples and Carrying on initial short term designing/sketching sessions related to the main subject. It should be considered that the mentioned approaches can be applied parallel during explanation of the design problem. 

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Writer: 

PIR BABAEI M.T. | AMRAEI B.

Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    37
  • Start Page: 

    69
  • End Page: 

    76
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    2
  • Views: 

    1007
  • Downloads: 

    310
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Nowadays consumers in industrial and post-industrial societies experience offering modular products that have special characteristics. These products are offered in groups and extent consumers choices and some others give them this opportunity to create their desired design. Consumers can choose products such as audio visual appliances, furniture, cell phones, cars, etc., among one group or another with specific form and financial features, the one which is their best desired product. This method will bring lots of advantages to the manufactures as well as making huge cut downs in production expenses. A modular product is defined as a product which is chosen and produced by the user from batch production of that particular product, because in batch production for each parts of the product some alternatives are available to choose by the user during purchasing time of the product or afterwards. In this study, with the purpose of achieving the approaches and design principles of modular products, the origins of this phenomenon which are rooted in post-industrial issues were investigated. Production characteristics in post-industrial era that have postmodern formation are: 1. End of meta-narration: Jean-Francois Lyotard believes that end of meta-narration is the most important characteristic of ideological and social aspect of postmodern era. End of meta-narration has even happened in meta-narrations of industrial production in Fordism and Tailorism meta-narrations. 2. End of Scarcity: Postmodern economy has been benefited from the opportunity to be planned in such a way that can respond to spiritual as well as primary needs of mankind. 3. Pluralism: The direct results of negation of totalitarian meta-narrations can refer to creation of pluralistic space in all aspects of social life of mankind. Pluralism as a main characteristic of postmodern era leads to the need to diversified and plural goods. 4. Balance in desirable pace of life: people always want some excitement and variety in their life. The need for variety caused uncertainty of people's relations with the products around them. So they need facilities to reduce their relation with those products. 5. Expression self: one of the results of pluralism in post-modern societies is the fact that people want neither goods nor constant identity and are always eager to reconstruct and build a new identity. Having introduced these characteristics, the article has introduced theoretical principles and designing principles such as "the principle of costumer-centeredness and wide range of consumers", "the principle of the range of consumer choice", "user-centered design" and "the use of psychological principle of substitution and co-occurrence". This study shows that the designing of modular products can have many advantages for both producers and consumers. For instance, it can increase the range of choice, ability to have a different and more personal product, maintaining the desirable pace of life and meeting spiritual as well as physical needs of the customer. For producers, too, it can have advantages such as: the possibility of instant reaction to demand fluctuations in the market, the possibility of market expansion, the possibility of product expansion and, above all, costumer satisfaction. 

Yearly Impact:  

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Writer: 

MOGHADAM NASRIN

Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    37
  • Start Page: 

    77
  • End Page: 

    86
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    871
  • Downloads: 

    197
Abstract: 

In the contemporary world, the current of production of industrial goods and design of new products, are in close connection with marketing process. One of the main important factors for product success and it’s usefulness is the acceptable appearance of the object and a meaningful form. This research with it’s emphasis in linguistics, semiotics and product semantics, together with a specified field research has resulted to an understanding of effective factors in object perception. Moreover, the research has resulted into an effect of classification of objects in product semantics and creation of a semiotic table applied for industrial design. To summarize, the most important item in perception and identifying an object would be it’s form. Perception of product meaning would mean perceiving it’s utility and it’s function. Each object whose form expresses it’s function would be meaningful for the observer. Knowledge of elements and construction of a message in product language would create an effect in making a relation between form, meaning and it’s function. Tea-making instruments have been introduced as a case study for this research. Human need to the existence of object and it’s function defines the form of product and the compatibility of this function with the need of user would create a positive meaning and would improve the utility value of the product. To conclude a designer, with his reference to this research, can choose formal, lighting, sound, graphical and other signs for his product with a better choice. To go more in details, every product can be analyzed from an aesthetic point of view and a work of art is consisted of a form and content which is inseparable and we can consider form as face (exterior) and content as meaning. Every object has two main sides, which is form and function, because every product has been made based on a specific need and a specific form must be given to the product to fulfill it’s form. The idea of every product would be an answer to the essential cause of the product, which has been named as Causa Essentialis or function by Aristotle. While we compare between forms and meaning, form and content, form and function, we can see that content, meaning and function can be considered as the same. So we can say that a denotative meaning of a thing would be equal to function of a product. The main work of this research was also based on a comparative study between semiotics and functional view of product, which has it’s origin in German school of design, and it’s applications for industrial design has been considered in the paper. In categorizing different products, similarities can be traced which can register a mental picture of product in the mind of the observer. Any change in elements and constructs of the object would result to the change in mental picture of the object and can result in a change in perception and cognition of the product as well, and this can be viewed as an important matter of consideration for products which can have an effective part in human life.

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Writer: 

AZHAND Y.

Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    37
  • Start Page: 

    87
  • End Page: 

    94
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    486
  • Downloads: 

    171
Abstract: 

Daulatshah, The historian, described Ibrahim-sultan as «virtuous and talented prince who Patronized the arts.» Shahrukh, Ibrahim - sultan’s father, bestowed the governorship of shiraz on him at the time of his cousin Iskandar’s downfall. Many of the gilders, binders and scribes who had executed Iskandar’s manuscripts appear to have remained in shiraz, and Ibrahim made full use of their services in a fascinating series of manuscripts of poetry and Illustrated epic and dynastic history. Ibrahim-sultan was a noted calligrapher himself and patron of poets and learned men. An example of the calligraphy of Ibrahim-sultan is in a Qur’?n which he copied and which is now in the Pars museum at shiraz (no.430 m/p).The historian sharaf al–Din ?Ali Yazdi, the author of Zafarnama, which is completed in 828/1425, worked, with other scolars,for Ibrahim–sultan. Several illustrated copies of zafarnama were made in the early 16 th century at shiraz. One of these appears to have Produced for Ibrahim-Sultan. An interesting manuscript Produced under Patronage of Ibrahim-Sultan is an arthology, now in the museum für Islamische kunst in Berlin, which dated 823/420. This anthology is dedicated by Ibrahim-Sultan to his brother B?ysunghor, and was no doubt as a gift to be Presented to him. Several artists appear to have worked on it, for the manu script represent an extraordinary mixture of styles. From a blend of the Muzaffarid and early Timurid court styles sprang the court style of Ibrahim-sultan. An interesting manuscript in this connexion is the Shahnama was Produced for Ibrahim-Sultan himself. In this splendid manuscript the Shiraz style is at its height. The drawing is bold and free, and the colours rich. The manuscript contains an illuminated dedication and a verse Panegyric. It is covered with splendid illumination containing the signature of the illuminator, Nasr al-sultan. This shahnama cotians 47 miniature. Ibrahim-Sultan is a Timurid prince whose position as a patron and spansor of fine painting is anomalous. He did have bibliophilic interests. He was an accomplished calligrapher is noted by the Timurid historians khwandamir and Daulatshah and repeated by later writers Principally Qazi Ahmad and Mustafa Ali. We may well wonder whether the pictorial aspect of the art the book occupied Ibrahim-sultan at all in the years between 823/1420 and about 833/1430 or so. He copied Qur’ans: Five of the six have dates between 826/1422-3 and 827/1434. He executed monumental inscriptions for buildings in Shiraz and its environs, and at Perspolis. This article will Review and discussed the written record of Ibrahim-sultan artistic achievements in Shiraz school of painting. 

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Writer: 

AMIRKHANI GH.R.

Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    37
  • Start Page: 

    95
  • End Page: 

    101
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    467
  • Downloads: 

    168
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

The fifteenth century, 9th century A.H., in Iran has been known as Timurid period. In spite of political and social conflicts and many contradictions, the Timurid rulers were interested to arts, specially the art of the book. In fact, they caused a wide range of masterpieces and antiquarian manuscripts by supporting and backing up the artists. Although, the precious copies of books had been created in different cities and areas through Iran, the head quarter of these arts was Khurasan (the Great Khurasan). During nearly one hundred years, first Herat and later other cities of Khurasan became famous for their magnificent works of book covering and binding in leather stamp, block stamp and cat pattern styling. This research deals with the bookbinding as a kind of arts were created within libraries. Art of the book mostly included painting, calligraphy, and bookbinding. In other word, painters, calligraphers, and bookbinders were a group of library staffs. We don't know a lot about the origin of Khurasan bookbinding but some European writers believed the technique of painting on pasteboard under lacquer varnish, for example, utilized in Khurasan from 15th century. Originating in China, this technique was transmitted to east of Iran as a result of the expanded contacts with China during the Timurid dynasty. The greatest books were produced in the royal workshops and libraries to the orders of Timurid princes, but there was also an extensive trade in books and booksellers often having a particular street or alley in a great city. In royal workshops, the binders would be essential members, though comparatively few attained a status sufficient to cause their name to be recorded. The bookbinding of Khurasan style had many famous artists during fifteenth century. Amongst them Qavam al-Din, to whom he attributes the invention of filigree and a report under the title of "Arze dasht", writing by Jafar Tabrizi(Baysunquri), on work in progress by Qavam al-Din and his colleagues, but no binding definitely known to be by him survives. Some precious and well-known manuscripts with flourishing covers that are mostly preserved in Turkish museums are as below: – Kalila and Dimna: the illustrated copy with 19 miniatures and ornamented stamp cover. Jafar Baysunquri wrote this copy in 823 A.H./ 1420 A.D. – Shahnemeh Ferdowsi which also copied for Baysounqur by Jafar Baysunquri during 829-833 A.H. in Heart. Its binder was Qavam al-Din Tabrizi. This copy of shahnameh with excellent illuminations is included in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register of cultural heritage. – Jami al-usul: Another binding for Baysunqur which might be the work of this master is that to a Jami al-Usul of Ibn al-Athir copied in 839 A.H./ 1435 A.D. It has been estimated that the decoration would have required 550000 blind-tooled stamps and 43000 gold ones, and that it would have taken five years to complete Selected works of Attar Nishaburi in two volumes which made for Shah Rukh Mirza is in the same vein of traditional abstract decoration. In spite of other examples, there is the signature of the bookbinder (mujallid), Nizam Tabrizi. Second volume has a Chinese decoration style. 

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