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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
Writer: 

SAMADZADEGAN B.

Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    36
  • Start Page: 

    101
  • End Page: 

    110
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    297
  • Downloads: 

    143
Abstract: 

After the industrial revolution, modern developments began to grow and by entering to the 20th century they reached to the highest zeniths of grace consequences. Through the path to such revolution, artists displayed several tendencies in showing their interests in fast speed of modern conversions and industrial and pragmatic approaches based on new psychology and geometry. Somewhere praising the new world’s results and some where worshiping the power and talent within human being as the center of this glorious world of knowledge and promotion. Several styles were formed in this time to show concerns of art and modernity. Lots of artists were interested in showing the inland reality of human being. As this reality was unseen physically, the result was ascendant abstract and formalistic shapes to make it visual. Gradually, links between artists and masses got inconspicuous. Artists were part of elites of societies. Elites where cerebral wings of modernity and masses where consumers and executives of their decisions and products. So there was no role for familiar social, cultural or historical subject matters in art anymore. Artists like Jackson Pollock believed that no reality is more real than the one within them. Some like Donald Judd believed that if only one person believes that what they’ve done is art, so it is. No need to be able to communicate more. It seemed that a majority of modern movements tried to pale any sort of obvious subject matter in visual arts. In another word, what was important in visual arts was the style not the content. But a bit later, almost in sixty’s, consequences of modernism brought tones of fatal experiences for mankind. Disasters such as the two World wars, mass destruction weapons, elapse of human values, environmental pollutions, etc. Therefore modern man started to criticize himself and his product both theoretically and practically. Opposite movements began to act against modern policies. Lots of rebels and objections around the world were opposing in front samples of modernity. Artists also joined people in streets. Lots of them captured what was going on in between masses subcultures and used them in their works of art. Content was going to be more important than style gradually. After awhile western art scene found interests in other cultures and began to show interest in multiculturalism. This essay tries to study on mentioned radicalism and the critical approaches which were formed because of the failure of Modernism to. The term “critical approaches” addresses generally to radical trends which criticize negative consequences of Modernism. These tendencies are mostly based on the aims of Postmodernism in showing opposition to Modernism. Lots of theorists believe the 60’s as the time of modernism’s failure. They announce the birth of Postmodernism during this decade. The most important bases of cotemporary movements and approaches in arts where formed in that time. What this essay tries to analyze are new changes and trends which shaped after this time in the western contemporary art and then communicated to the east under the term of globalization.

Yearly Impact:  

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Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    36
  • Start Page: 

    111
  • End Page: 

    122
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    485
  • Downloads: 

    223
Abstract: 

Many outlooks have been set forward by scholars concerning the influence of the art and industry of Persian textile on European art. Various studies concentrate on the fact that the Byzantine emperor textiles were heavily influenced by Sassanid textile designs; this confirms the development of Persian textile design throughout Europe. Considering this, there is still a dispute on whether the influence of Persian textiles on Europe exceeds beyond the art and design of the Sassanid era. According to what was mentioned, this article will initially focus on the early Islamic centuries of Persia, contemporary with Middle Ages of Europe, until the end of the Ilkhanid era and its center of attention will be to study the economic affairs between Islamic countries, especially Persia, and Europe, and in particular Italy. As well as considering the historical background of these relations, the alterations which affected the foreign political status of these countries and its effect on the trading industry will be studied. In brief, the first Iranian Islamic dynasties like Samanid, Buyid and Seljuk’s, in the Ilkhanid era, due to the economic relations between Islamic countries and Europe, according to changes of political conditions and religious wars that changed the trade routes directions from Islamic / Arabic countries like Syria and Egypt as the canons after Abbasid Islamic world, to Mongol empire as a distinct part of Islamic world that preferred better trade relationship than the insist on ideological thought. Despite the crusades, the trade between European countries and Arabic/Islamic countries continued and finally, as a result of Pope insistence on sanctions against trade with Arabic/Islamic countries, the European and especially Italian merchants start trading with non-ideological monarchy and distinguished Islamic country i.e. Iran as frontier part of great Mongol empire and the most important and ancient centre of raw silk and various cloths. Secondly, with the Ilkhanid era as the basis (1251-1335) and its contemporary period in Italy; a comparative study will analyze the textiles and the impact of Persian weaving on Italian textile. Finally, this article will proceed on a comparative studying focusing mainly on the patterns, conceptions and the combinations of the textiles and its influence on other textiles. after the strong impact of Sassanid textile patterns on Byzantine and European textiles; In particular, Italy (which was considered as bridge between the textile trading between Europe and the west); the Italians (from the midst of the thirteenth century until the beginning of Renaissance) started to detach themselves from their original method -the Sicilian silk weaving in a branching style, which was imitated from Sassanid and Islamic Egyptian art-and inclined towards the imported fabrics of Persia in the Ilkhanid era; furthermore, this influence sustained until the Renaissance period. The influence consists various levels. In particular, many cloths of Middle age had some Iranian or Iranian version of Chinese textile design methods, and we can say that between Sassanid era to the end of Ilkhanid era, Iranian textile design had a continuous impact on European fabric patterns, combinations and meanings. sustained until the Renaissance period.

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Writer: 

MONAZAMI SH.

Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    36
  • Start Page: 

    123
  • End Page: 

    129
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    251
  • Downloads: 

    127
Abstract: 

The historical sites and monuments remained from the ancient time are reminiscences of a strong generation whose ancestors had sometime ascended to the peak of their carrier, sometimes distressed and sometimes faced with intermission and stagnation in their magnificent and wonderful search; and these circumstances reveal mysteries to us whether at the time of engraving an image into a stone, or sculpturing a statue, erecting of a building or crafting a musical and acoustic instrument. During the wars between Iran and Arabs, and domination of the Arabs all sources of the Persian music including its track and clef which has been recorded in numerous books by the scientists and masters of music were totally burnt to ashes and destroyed and lost its scientific aspect, particularly when it was branded with as being illegitimate, something which was intensified during the Safavid Dynasty, when the elite class avoid it willingly or unwillingly. Therefore, the practical and technical portion of music fell into the hand of the ordinary and common people. However, since the fire of keenness on the fine industries particularly music which stems from the natural emotions, sentiments and properties of human being has been flaming among the art patronizing nations, this art treaded its path by another route, just like painting in which the artists and masters began to portray pictures beyond the nature in the carpets, imaginary scenes, miniatures, penholders and so on instead of using the nature itself, and manifested the gem of their talents and genius by means of inventing a special style acceptable for their time. The scientific music, too, opened its way praiseworthily through Ta’zieh (type of religious play) and Rowzekhani (narrating the passions of the Infallibles) and was transferred to us and the usual track of the world music by word of mouth by the artists and art patrons of art, and it was the same track which prevented the Persian music from annihilation. Over the recent years, the number of the folklore music fans increased more and before. Today a large group of students finds nobility in the native and local values and norms and try to reconstruct and revive them. Whereas folklore music and country songs which are presented in the form of a modal have always served as the primitive element for further and greater acquaintance with the traditional music, The songs and melodies whose magnificent tinkle sooth the fatigue bodies in each and every moment of the life. They have composed the most elegant words from birth to rejoice and from rejoice to mourning at the time of unity and disunity with the dear ones of the clan and tribe or in their work and labor of goatskin beating, harvesting, threshing and milking; neither they have even disremembered the beautiful songs of the night at time of sleep and rest. the present article attempts to identify one of the varieties of the folklore music of Iran in order to urge further research on the nobility of the sets of pitches.

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Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    36
  • Start Page: 

    17
  • End Page: 

    26
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    1
  • Views: 

    486
  • Downloads: 

    314
Abstract: 

The architecture is one of the basic identity signs of every civilization. Concerning the long history of Iranian civilization, its architecture has acquired a great attention across the world by names like Takht Jamshid, pasargad, Tisfon palace, Imam Mosque, Naghsh Jahan, sheikh lotfolah mosque and so many others. The architecture of central part of iran is known. But, the western part of Iran has been forgotten and the architecture structure in this district has no status in the concept of Iranian architecture today. Eastern and center of Iran plateau architectural patterns have been converted to the symbol of Iran architecture .There are some basic differences between the architecture of western part and the introverted structure in the desert and central part of Iranian plateau, which less architectural research has been attended to this subject. In this paper, the architecture of western part of Iran, Kurdistan province, has been investigated based on Islamic architecture values and local culture with special emphasis on the patterns of mountain villages. In this research, the features of Kurdistan rural architecture are introduced and explained .There are different patterns in rural architecture of Iran. Most of has been located in central part of Iranian plateau, Such as those villages in Esfahan, Kashan, Yazd and Kerman regions. These patterns are well documented and known for most of Architects and Researchers. But the Iranian context cannot be summarized based on this part. For this reason, we have to look at the west part of Iranian plateau which contained the Zagros region with particular pattern of architecture that is unknown yet. This pattern has an ancient background comprising great values. In fact, this can be recognized as one of the basses to define the Iranian architecture from another point of view. This research has two basic parts. In the first part, the texture and construction of the selected villages are illustrated with a particular view to the residential architecture. In this part the most elements of residential architecture in selected villages are introduced. This was neglected in the architectural researches and less attention has been paid to mentioned differences. By referring to the features of the site (topography) the Villages of Kurdistan can be divided into three categories: plain, highlands and foot of mountains. The research is based on these three categories. There is a simple relation between rural life and their needs (such as cultural, economical and social needs). This means that there is a connection between the design of the settlements and those conceptualized needs. In the second part, the main elements of rural settlements are analyzed considering the case studies selected from the province of Kurdistan. The selected villages are in the three categories which are introduced in part one of this research. The paper concludes that the most important factors affected the organization of the rural settlements and their special patterns are mainly morphology of the site, climate, economy, and people's social status. The rural architecture in Zagros is near to organic architecture.

Yearly Impact:  

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Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    36
  • Start Page: 

    27
  • End Page: 

    36
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    2
  • Views: 

    896
  • Downloads: 

    316
Abstract: 

Wind towers are historic and Iranian vernacular architectural innovation, and they are building form ingredient that have climatic application. Wind tower is a key element in traditional architecture of Iran. It looks like big chimneys in sky line of ancient cities in Iran. It is a vertical shaft with vents on top to lead desired wind to the interior spaces and provide thermal comfort. Its advantage is using natural air as a cooler. This feature shows the compatibility of this architectural design with the environment. It conserves energy and functions on the basis of sustainability principles. A traditional wind tower that served as a cooling system, used to provide acceptable ventilation by means of a renewable energy of wind. In this research, wind tower is studies in the context of vernacular architecture of hot-dry climate of Iran. In the present study, the city of Yazd in arid climate is selected as case study. The desired wind currents in Yazd blow from the north-west. The long sides of wind towers are, therefore, oriented towards the north-west for maximum use of the wind to provide cooling for buildings. The tower head may have vents on one, two or four sides that face the predominant wind direction to accommodate wind in suitable directions. Studies indicate that four directional towers are the most popular wind tower. They have four main vertical shafts divided by partitions. The result of this research is that traditional architecture can give ideas to modern architecture. Climate and local construction materials have been considered in this design and renewable energy resources are used. It shows the harmony with nature. Traditional building techniques are normally well adapted to the climate and to the way of life imported western technology has often replaced the established tradition in the design of the building. There are whole ranges of examples which reflect how and why people organize their environment in various forms. One of reasons is climate. In this research wind towers are described in fields of function, structure, form. From the architecture point of view, learning about wind catchers in this study is done by the means of the field surveys. Research method for selection of the case is based on random form, and analytical method. Wind catcher typology and knowledge of the relationship governing the wind catcher's architecture were those measures that are taken for the first time. 53 wind catchers were analyzed. The typology of the wind-catchers is done by the physical analyzing, patterns and common concepts as incorporated in them. How the architecture of wind catcher can influence their operations by analyzing thermal behavior are the archetypes of selected wind catchers. This study has used calculating fluids dynamics science, fluent software and numerical analysis as the most accurate analytical approach. The results obtained from these analyses show the formal specifications of wind catchers with optimum operation in Yazd city. The knowledge obtained from the optimum model could be used for design and construction of wind catchers with more improved operation.

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Writer: 

NOURIFARD A. | FARZIAN M.

Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    36
  • Start Page: 

    37
  • End Page: 

    48
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    520
  • Downloads: 

    333
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Nowadays earthquake as one of the effective factors in stages of architectural formation has been forgotten and only structural engineer is liable for seismic resistant design of buildings after completion of architectural design. This is caused seismic resistant design of buildings to be difficult, expensive and sometimes impossible. Even it may indispose architectural concept. Because architect is liable for all of the affairs of the building so he should solve this problem and present the best method for seismic resistant design of buildings with his broad view. This article with a practical approach is extracted from the thesis with the same title. Its main goals are collaboration between architectural and structural design in different stages for seismic resistant design of buildings and presenting a full check list to control the effects of earthquake in stages of architectural formation. Because of existing lacks, it is limited to ordinary buildings, with the short to medium range of height and with current technology of construction in Iran. Main structure of this article is formed in two sections. In first section based on existing seismic theories and previous earthquakes experiments it was proposed a check list of earthquake effects to control the project in five stages of architectural formation. This check list formed as matrices which systematically arrange all of the important things for seismic resistant design of buildings. To answer to each of them, designer can use special ideas according to subject, position, possibilities and limitations of the project. It should be indicated that the relation of this five stages is not linear necessarily and based on design method can be used interactively. According to main goals of this paper, in each stage only seismic theories which are related to one of the elements of each matrix is described very briefly. In second section efficiency of this methodology was considered practically in designing a project. So school as a very important space in all of the international codes of seismic resistant design and with the most proportion of the public buildings that can be used as rescue and relief center if it remains stable, was the best option for case study. Finally, based on the produced check list, it was tried to answer to all of the architectural and structural criteria interactively in different stages of architectural formation from sketch to construction details desirably by using geometry. Furthermore in detail design by proper selection of current material in direction of lightening the building, dead load of the building became 63% lighter than current technology of construction in Iran. This matter beside all of the applied considerations in different stages of design was caused increasing the stability of the building and optimizing its structural elements. As a conclusion of studies, it should be expressed that achieving a building with the best quality of architectural spaces and optimum structural elements to resist against earthquake would be impossible, unless it was collaboration between architectural and structural design from sketch to construction details.

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Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    36
  • Start Page: 

    49
  • End Page: 

    57
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    1
  • Views: 

    415
  • Downloads: 

    162
Abstract: 

After separation of continuous architectural education, M.A, into two disconnected periods, it has been almost one decade that architectural design studios of B.A are being thought in Architecture Faculties of our country. In spite of that, faculties of architecture has been established with the purpose of educating manpower that is serviceable to organize human life spaces, unfortunately, this purpose has not been achieved in architecture profession And differences between needs of society, architectural education and its influence on gratuates’ ability are the most important problems in this way. In this regard, it is necessary for faculties to educate architects whose works are in accordance with real needs of the society and who try to surmount these needs. Regarding needs of the society and comparative similarity between the nature of design studios and architecture profession, a main duty in educating graduates’ ability has always been given to these courses; Thus evaluation of all these courses is very important to control the operation of these courses in educating professional architects. This article as the first step in approaching this goal, has reconsidered design 4 studio, because of its being one of the most important courses which makes architecture student mature and professional, and also because it is one of the first serious design practices for students before finishing their study and entering the profession. after years during which design courses have been thought in Yazd architecture Faculty, Regarding the description of practician architecture graduates as professional architects and also selecting some of them (Yazd University graduates in architecture) as statistical universe of the research, the main question of this article is that “have the design courses (here, Design 4 studio) had any role in graduates’ professional abilities?” And the purpose of the article is qualitative and quantities Study of the impact that design 4 studio have had on graduates’ professional future. To get to the answer for the main question, under cover of studying educational program of architecture major’s definition about design 4 studio, the information gathered from questionnaires -that had been given to graduate students- has been analyzed. Finally according to analogy between the educational program’s goals of architecture major and the results of questionnaires, the radical solutions have been expressed within research hypothesis limits. This article is set in three part: 1-Cognition, 2-Information gathering and analysis, 3-Conclusion and representing solutions. Architecture major, being or becoming professional architect are defined In the first part and Design 4 studio’s place in educational system and educational program of architecture major are recognized. The second part includes results of questionnaires that represent in some diagrams and tables; also there is analysis of statistical information in reconsideration part of answers. And at last the results of research are expressed and some suggestions are presented to describe the contradictions seen in the results.

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Writer: 

DANESHPOUR Z.

Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    36
  • Start Page: 

    5
  • End Page: 

    16
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    588
  • Downloads: 

    286
Abstract: 

The main presumption of this paper is that the cities and city-regions have multi-faceted or spatial problems that if the existing procedures, methods and approaches are maintained and the existing problems remain unresolved, not only new problems would appear, the existing problems would be accentuated and the cities in general- and Tehran as the case example of this paper- will fall in a problematic and no-win situation. Though Tehran has a rather long record of planning, the unsteady political, administrative and socio-economic history of the country has made it almost impossible for Tehran – as the primate city and capital of the country – to enjoy a continuity needed not only to avoid the formation of new irresolvable problems, but also to encounter the existing problem-laden situation. The planning system of Tehran is plan-led and orientated towards the plan preparation activities of a planning process and thus suffers deep deficiencies by not focusing on 'problem-identification' and 'problem-solving' stages. As a result, there is a fragile relationship between the plans and the resolution of problems through planning mechanism. The ill-defined and imperfect approach to 'problem-identification' in Tehran through its different planning documents as well as the contradiction, lack of consensus, lack of common goals - and sometimes - clash between the involved stakeholders competing to gain power over the distribution of resources at national and local levels, has diverted the planning solutions in Tehran, either to no-problem and insignificant problem areas, or to effects rather than causes. Eventually not only a set of inadequately identified problems but also weak planning solutions has been introduced through time. Thus historically, the crucial problems have remained unresolved and the country and its urban areas - including Tehran - have been denied access to the benefits of a co-coordinated and effective control mechanism. Urban problems of such a city as Tehran have to be studied within a national framework as some of each city's problems are dependent on the problems at that level. The resolution of such problems demands decisions and policy making at the national level. The other set of problems, i.e. the specific problems of any city are to be dealt with at the local or metropolitan level. This paper intends to delineate some conceptual basis related to 'problems', 'problem categorization', 'urban spatial problems', 'problem-identification' and 'problem-solving', prior to make an attempt to analyze its case example, i.e. Tehran. Historically Tehran has adopted a simple or rational-comprehensive approach to plan preparation which lacks the tradition of 'problem-identification' and 'problem-solving'. This paper asserts that by adopting an alternative and locally adapted approach - such as step-by-step, incremental or mixed-scanning approach (embracing strategic thinking) - it is possible to improve the planning process in Tehran: application of a 'problem-identification-problem-solving process'. The importance of adopting an alternative problem-orientated approach will be more evident when entering the prescriptive stage of a planning process or introducing the key decision areas to solve the problems of Tehran, or any such city in the country or worldwide with such unprepared planning environment.

Yearly Impact:  

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Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    36
  • Start Page: 

    59
  • End Page: 

    65
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    497
  • Downloads: 

    168
Abstract: 

Product design is a complex activity which aims to improve a product and answer the users' needs. In recent years designers have focused on emotional design. Emotional design is a knowledge which relates to users' emotions and effects of the products on the users. Since the emotions appear unconsciously to the users and it is related to users' experiences, figuring out the emotions is not easy. Product design is directly related to the users' experience therefore, product should be designed to bring a pleasant experience to the users. Obviously the interaction between user and product is very important. Users' emotional needs have a great influence on their purchasing decisions. Therefore, in order to persuade people to buy, there is a need to design products with the emotional considerations. Many attempts have been made to bring emotions to product design systematically. One of the systematic methods is "Kansei Engineering". Kansei is a Japanese word, which means sensitivity, sensibility, intuition and emotion. Kansei Engineering is known as a successful methodology in design and economy which translates users' emotions to product traits. This methodology was established by Professor Mitsou Nagamachi in Hiroshima International University in 1970. In this case study Kansei Engineering is applied to design an assistive device for elderly people. For this aim, first Kansei Engineering method was studied, then the role of words for describing Iranian users' emotions was considered. Finally Kansei Engineering was employed to design an assistive device for elderly people by considering their emotional. In the case study, after gathering information regarding the physical and emotional needs of users, many concepts were generated. Due to the design limitations such as the level of users’ ability and technical considerations like size limitations, stability and mobility of the device four concepts have been selected. This four selected concepts were evaluated by Kansei method. For this aim, 105 words that could describe the specifications of the device were provided. Due to the choice domain in Kansei Engineering these words were reduced to 24. Then four selected concepts and 24 Kansei words were presented to 52 people who agreed to participate in the study. Fifty-two people, 23 men and 29 women between 55-82 years of age, were selected randomly. The users’ expressions were closely observed. In addition, they were asked to explain their feelings regarding the attractiveness of the product about its color, form and comfort of use by means of the selected Kansei words. By analyzing gathered data, the specifications of the final product were determined. The new concept was developed due to these specifications. In order to evaluate the users' satisfaction regarding the form of the final concept, another study was carried out with 25 people. The result of this study proved that the concept could meet the majority of emotional needs of the users. Therefore, it was concluded that the Kansei Engineering method was effective to design a product due to the users' emotions.

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Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    36
  • Start Page: 

    67
  • End Page: 

    76
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    1
  • Views: 

    422
  • Downloads: 

    145
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

This text is an attempt to show some figurative motifs in saqqa – talars’ paintings. Even 3 centuries after Islam entered Iran, the North was still populated by followers of the 'Mazda'. It follows that Northern Iran is the best place to study the influence of Mazda'ism on the social and cultural lives of Iranians. This paper describes a type of traditional architecture of Northern Iran, which the author believes to have originated from ancient Iranian culture. I find that this construction is mostly made of wood and is called "saqqa – talar" to natives. ”Saqqa“ means one who gives water to others. On the other hands, all Saqqa – talars are devoted to Abolfazl, the valorous brother of imam Hossein, the third Shiite Islamic leader. In spite of this , there are certain symbols and signs in the Saqqa – talars which have historical importance and date from the time when Anahita was worshipped. These are signs directly or indirectly related to water, such as serpants, dragons, horned serpent- dragons, the two guardian angles of water and greenery ( Khordad and Mordad), the king of rain among others. Saqqa – talars are present in holy places like shrines (imam- zades) , burial grounds , and "tekyes "( which are also traditional architectural structures) . These uniqe constructions are found exclusively in the north, especially in Mazandaran and are beautifully ornamented with attractive designs. These are dichotomized based on varieties of forms and content: a: Religious designs b: Secular designs Prophets , imams, Myths and epics , Folklore and legends , Ancient Farsi literary texts , Astrology and constellations , Fantastic creations and Geometrical motifs are most decorative motive. Calligraphy also plays a very important role in defining the identity of Saqqa- talars. Also noteworthy are the intricate and beautiful woodcarvings. Various Pillar forms, Pillar heads sculpted like dragons or human forms are all artistic displays of the abilities of local artisians. I conducted interviews in 2 Saqqa– talars, Kordkola and Shiyade and attempt to show how this motifs can identified Iranian art and folklore. In this comparative study, Tools analysing motives based on the concepts myths, epics and religious symbol .Studying this decorative painting, can assist us to become more aware of reality, identity and content Of motifs and the roles that played in history art of Qajar period in Mazandaran. Common elements and motifs in two saqqa- tallars are religious usage, wooden structure, epic and litrature content. Some different elements are in dimension, content and angle figures. The Lion and Sun motif (shir o khorshid) is one of the better known emblems of Iran, and between 1964 and 1979 was an element in Iran's national flag. Although first attested in the 15th century, its symbolism is significantly older and is tied to notions of power and kingship. This motif is common in saqqa- talars painting.

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Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    36
  • Start Page: 

    77
  • End Page: 

    85
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    155
  • Downloads: 

    150
Abstract: 

Photography camera was presented to the Qajar court in mid December1842 as a gift and since photography received the royal attention of Nasseredin Shah, it grew rapidly and became institutionalized. Among various functions of photography in the nineteenth century, in the beginning, taking women's picture was in contradiction with the women's representation in the west was raised as a cultural issue. Photography of women was almost impossible for fear of women sitting in front of camera, male photographer and published their photos. The joy and Nasseredin Shah's tend and his superior situation made first steps in breaking this cultural taboo and his taking photos of his women of the Harem became the beginning of taking women's photos by photography camera in Iran. He would personally take pictures of the members of his seraglio. Underneath most pictures of the women of his seraglio which exist in the collection of his photographs in the royal collection, he points out in his own handwriting that he has personally taken the pictures (not another male photographer). Two teenager eunuchs had helped to shah when he wanted to be in some photos next to his wives or in developing and print. Nasseredin shah felt that he should allot a special place for a studio. For this reason he designated a place in the yard of Golestan Palace to studio. It was next to Shamsol Emareh Building; naming it as the Majesty's Royal Studio. Agha Reza Akkas Bashi was the first professional photographer in Iran. He became the manager of the first Royal studio. He would take all the photos desired by Nasseredin shah in this studio, except photography of women. New documents have been investigated in this research evidence because Royal studio was far away from Harem and for Islamic limitation Nasseredin Shah reserved an area of his Harem for photography studio. Harem studio designated to photography of the women of his seraglio and had been managed by Amineh Aghdas one of the influential and famous women in the court. These documents consist of architectural documents of royal palace (Golestan Palace) and some telegraphs from Nasseredin Shah that had sent to his wives, especial Amine Aghdas, during Nasseredin Shah's travel to the west. The frequent trips of noble Iranian in the west and three trips to the western countries by shah put us in the path of sudden storm of modernity and modernism was formed in shape of arrival of western images in Iran. Taking photos of women in this cultural- social change cycles by the upper class people with expenses of traveling west left the walls of Nasseri Palace and arrived into photography shops. After Nasseredin Shah, some noblemen started to photography of women in their family and after that we can see pictures of Iranian women had been taken by Iranian photographer in photography studios. This research also has investigated the gradual process of abolishment of bans in taking photos from women and its spread.

Yearly Impact:  

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Journal: 

HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    36
  • Start Page: 

    87
  • End Page: 

    100
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    1
  • Views: 

    505
  • Downloads: 

    232
Abstract: 

Advertising on posters is meant making the subject in issue well-known and identified to the audience and to attract them to select, purchase, and/or follow up the case; considering the point that the audience enjoy an increased knowledge and consciousness nowadays, graphic designers should have a more specific performance to this effect and hence they are to take benefits of sociology and psychology disciplines, rational estimations, scientific findings and to find the correct and helpful strategy based on such information in order to catch the attention of audience that may lead to a subsequent achievement in the competitions. Therefore, a process of assessment of the audience and classification of them by such measures as sex, age groups, socioeconomic and political inclinations, needs, educational level, employment and revenues, social status e.g. whether they are from among general public or the elites, the position they take toward the message as opponents or proponents, as active or passive audience, and finally determination of the purposes sought by the message are introductory actions to be taken before an advertisement message is designed. One may discover the proper approaches to the creation of effective relation with the target audience through exciting the desired reactions, the identification of moral and ideas of each of the aforesaid groups. The research methodology of this article was based on some documents of artistic collections including a statistical universe consisting of about one thousand successful posters all over the world within the recent decade. The statistics obtained and the data collected are according to the artistic characteristics of the posters and the percentages presented are indicative of the rate of application of each advertisement strategy in the aforementioned posters. The concluding part of article includes a list of advertisement strategies helpful for all graphics designers: strategy of observance of simplicity, the strategy of frequency of poster repetition of uniform and similar elements, exaggerated expression of special feature, the strategy of distortion, the strategy of presentation of a reasonable excuse, the strategy of employment the reputation of famous characters, strategy of giving sense on the helpfulness of harmony with majority, the strategy of harmony with time acceleration and abstraction, the strategy of metaphoric and indirect expressions, strategy of symbolic expression (establishing symbolic relation), the strategy of the modern esthetics for an emphasis on written and visual communication, strategy of excitement of the dormant childhood by making childish pictures, strategy of creation of a felt need, strategy of forming and induction of new phenomena, excitement of sentiments, exhilarating and creation of funny sense, creation of fearfulness, strategy of attention to folklores, introduction of advertising character, strategy of using color attraction for an explicit and quick expression. For further explanation and clearance of the role of each of the said advertisement policies they are described with some detailed samples. The final result indicates the effect of the proper selected strategy in success of the assessed posters.

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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID