Journal Issue Information

علوم پزشکی رازی (مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران) | سال:1400 | دوره:28 | شماره:3

Archive

Year

Volume(Issue)

Issues

مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    1
  • End Page: 

    8
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    147
  • Downloads: 

    146
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Since cancer as a chronic disease starts slowly and gradually and continues for a long time, it has very amazing psychological effects. This disease can be a traumatic event that causes many negative emotions such as Anger, Depression, Depression, Anxiety, Sleep Problems, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. In fact, cancer affects a person's life in four dimensions: psychological, social, physical, and spiritual. Psychological factors play a key role in both the development of cancer and the persistence and consequences of the disease. Not only is it important to characterize the attitude of people with cancer towards death, but it is also necessary to identify and characterize the factors that affect death and attitudes toward it, such as attachment styles, emotional repression, and anxiety sensitivity. Comprehensive cancer services, which include providing support and support in all areas of physical, emotional, family, practical and spiritual care that affect the disease, seem to be essential in today's society. Because the experience of each stage of cancer profoundly affects the lives of patients. Although rehabilitation plays an important role in the course of treatment. Generally, there are no structures for regular assessment of psychological needs or sound and evaluated guidelines for individual rehabilitation interventions, as well as organizations for referring patients to benefit from advanced rehabilitation services. The effect of many non-pharmacological factors in the recovery of cancer can be measured, one of which can be the efforts of patients in the recovery process due to commitment to their families. In fact, by becoming aware of having this life-threatening disease, people's perceptions of life change and they try to adapt to this situation. The psychological effects of cancer diagnosis and the physical effects of treatment and its side effects can be affected in some way by a person's commitment to his family. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between patients' views on family obligations and attitudes toward recovery in cancer patients in Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan. Methods: This is a qualitative study. The statistical population of this study consists of a number of people with various types of cancer who referred to Beheshti Hospital in Kashan in 2015. A sample of this population of 16 people in the form of Available samples were selected. Criteria for inclusion in this study were that about 20 years after the diagnosis of cancer, patients were aware of their disease and had experience of at least one of the various treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. They had the ability to communicate verbally and the ability to hear. They were selected by available sampling for a period of 3 months from June 1994 to August 1994. The age range of patients was 28 to 70 years with a mean age of 49 years. 62. 5% of patients were female and different patients with different types of cancer were studied. Exclusion criteria also included all those with psychiatric disorders who had been treated or had any acute or chronic illness. Results: According to the interviews with these patients, it is clear that with the progress made in improving cancer and despite the support of family members in the recovery process, many patients for various reasons that can be said to be due to commitment They are trying to speed up their recovery process. Among the effective factors arising from the sense of commitment of these patients are: the person's emotional relationship with family members and the person's view of his abilities. Conclusion: Family-based commitment to health is one of the deep concepts that can be considered today along with other quantitative indicators such as life expectancy and survival, and it can be said that it has a positive and direct and significant relationship with recovery and its importance. It is especially prevalent in transformational diseases and long-term and complex treatments, including cancers. Among women, commitment to all members of the extended family, headed by children, was considered important, but among men, commitment was considered the only focus on completing the necessary activities for the normal life of the children and completing the paternal duty. شد. It should be noted that companionship and consequently family commitment is more visible around the first year of the disease and in the second year due to family fatigue during this period this feeling of commitment decreases and if the patient recovers after two years This feeling of commitment has increased since the illness, and the patient is making more efforts to recover due to the planned accompaniment of the family, who have in fact somehow come to terms with the illness over the years. Knowing that a person has cancer is a surprising and disturbing experience for every person and their family, and in fact, knowing that they have this life-threatening disease changes people's perception of life and tries to do so. The situation is adapted. The psychological effects of cancer diagnosis and the physical effects associated with treatment and the side effects associated with it can be somewhat influenced by a person's commitment to his family. Not only is it important to characterize the attitude of people with cancer towards death, but it is also necessary to identify and characterize the factors influencing death and attitudes toward it, such as attachment styles, emotional repression, and anxiety sensitivity. Given the growing prevalence of cancer, the issue of recovery of these patients, both physically and What is considered psychologically important. According to the researcher, due to the fact that the physical part of this disease is mostly focused on specialized doctors, but in the field of mental recovery of cancer patients, the main achievement of which is the person himself, many issues can be considered. After suffering from this disease, which in the optimistic state of some patients is considered incurable and even sometimes, some patients consider it incurable, the most important reason for continuing treatment and the process of improving family commitment in patients can be. In fact, patients are more concerned about what will happen to their families during this illness and in the future.

Yearly Impact:  

View 147

Download 146 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    107
  • End Page: 

    116
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    74
  • Downloads: 

    95
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: With increasing urbanization in the developing world, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is observed worldwide and is likely to become the most common cause of death worldwide by 2020 (1). On the other hand, physical exercise can reduce the risk of coronary artery disease by increasing the maximum oxygen consumption and favorable hemostatic effects (2). Decreased elasticity of large arteries and impaired vascular endothelium are two important factors affecting vascular function (3). Studies show that aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness in healthy people of all ages and coronary artery disease patients (5). Therefore, many researchers have concluded that exercise programs by patients improve performance, physical and mental fitness, reduce the risk of recurrent myocardial infarction, reduce heart rate and systolic blood pressure and the amount of oxygen consumed by resting heart muscle. Increasing the capacity of aerobic activity leads to changes in cardiac risk factors, reducing anxiety and depression (4). One of the effective factors in cardiovascular signaling in these effects of exercise is protein kinase B (PKB). Protein kinase B, also known as Akt, is a serine / threonine-specific protein kinase protein. PKB activates a variety of proteins that generally help cells survive and grow. PKB is a key mediator of multiple signaling pathways in angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Activation of protein kinase b (Akt) impairs mitochondrial function in cardiac hypertrophy (7). It has also been suggested that phospholipase, as an enzyme of the lipase group that breaks down phospholipids into fatty acids and other fatty compounds, is involved in signaling and messaging in the cardiovascular pathway (9, 10). On the other hand, it has been shown that dietary or pharmacological interventions can affect heart function. Among these, omega-3 supplements have been considered and recommended due to their beneficial compounds (11). Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, lipid-lowering and vasodilating effects. These effects of omega-3 fatty acids are secondary to the prevention of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and depression (13). Due to the limited research and also the contradiction of previous research on the effect of exercise and omega-3 supplementation on patients with coronary artery disease, the question arises that how effective is aerobic exercise with omega-3 intake on the expression of PLC and PKB genes in men with CAD? Methods: The method of the present study was quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test design. The statistical population in this study were all men with cardiovascular disease referred to Rouhani and Shahid Beheshti hospitals in Babol (in the second half of 1997-98) from which 32 people were selected as a statistical sample and randomly selected in four Group: control, omega-3, exercise and omega-3 exercise. This study was approved by the ethics committee at the Islamic Azad University, Babol Branch (reference number: IR. IAU. ABOL. REC. 1398. 092). The training program consisted of eight weeks of intermittent running training, three sessions per week with an intensity between 55 and 65% of the subjects' reserve heart rate (HRR) and with emphasis on gradual overload. In these exercises, the beginning of each exercise session began with 10 minutes of general warm-up, including stretching, light and dynamic movements of the whole body, and at the end, 10 minutes of cooling was done (1, 4). 1000 mg of omega-3 daily in the morning in the form of a capsule (EPA180 and DHA120) with the brand name fish oil viva omega3 made in Canada was consumed with the main meal. Because the supplement is a kind of oil and is better absorbed with food (12). Blood samples were collected from the subjects 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session, after a night fast, and the serum was separated by centrifugation. After performing real time PCR and collecting raw data, they were reviewed and analyzed. One-way analysis of variance and subsequent Tukey test were used to examine the group changes from pretest to posttest after delta. Significance level is considered in all cases (α <0. 05). All statistical operations were performed using GraghPadprism 8 and Excel software at a significant level of p<0. 05. Results: The results showed a significant difference in changes in PKB and PLC gene expression between different groups from pre-test to post-test (p<0. 0001). The results of Tukey post hoc test also showed that there was a significant decrease between the mean expression of PKB gene in exercise, omega and exercise + omega groups compared to the control group (p<0. 0001). Also, the results of Tukey post hoc test showed that the mean ratio of changes in PLC gene expression in the exercise, omega and combination omega + omega training groups compared to the control group increased significantly (p<0. 0001). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the mean expression of PLC gene in training groups, omega and a combination of training + omega from pre-test to post-test had a significant increase. The omega + exercise group had a greater and more significant increase than the omega and exercise groups. Also, the mean ratio of PKB gene expression changes (AKT) in training groups, omega and combination of training + omega from pre-test to post-test had a significant decrease. However, the omega + exercise group showed a further decrease. Myocyte growth and angiogenesis in the coronary artery are dependent on AKT-mTOR. During Akt-mediated physiological cardiac growth, the Akt-mTOR pathway is activated, promoting both myocyte growth and coronary angiogenesis, leading to the maintenance of capillary density (17). Excessive and prolonged expression of activated Akt causes heart failure, and Akt activation has also been observed in the immature myocardium (18). In contrast, endothelial cells have been shown to treat phospholipase (PLC) C inhibitors (18). Research shows that exercise has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular adaptation, which can vary according to the type, intensity and duration of exercise (19). People with higher levels of physical activity are less likely to die from cardiovascular disease (19). Zhao et al. (2017) investigated the effect of treadmill training on signaling pathways affecting angiogenic factors and showed that the possible mechanism of upregulation of angiogenic factors and stimulation of phosphorylation of their receptors as well as downstream signaling pathway through pathways such as PLC Takes (23). Avseh et al. (2018) also showed the facilitation of lipolysis of adipose tissue during exercise through PIPLC / IP3 pathways (24). Epidemiological studies also show the benefits of n-3 PUFA (omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids) on cardiovascular health. Interventional studies confirmed that the use of n-3PUFA provides benefits for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Evidence from cellular and molecular research studies suggests that the protective effects of n-3 PUFA on the heart are due to synergies between complex and multiple mechanisms, including anti-inflammatory, lipid-mediated dissolution, modulation of cardiac ion channels, and reduction of triglycerides., Effect on membrane micro-domains and downstream cell signaling pathways and anti-thrombotic and anti-arrhythmic effects (25). In this study, it was found that intermittent exercise combined with omega-3 by providing PLC expression and decreasing PKB expression (AKT) provides protective effects against pathological hypertrophy of the heart. Therefore, it seems that these interventions can be used to improve coronary heart disease. One of the limitations of the present study was that the different doses of omega-3 were not compared with exercise. Therefore, further research is needed to more accurately investigate the mechanisms of omega-3 effects on coronary heart disease. In summary, according to the results of the present study, which showed an increase in PLC gene expression and a decrease in PKB gene expression after the simultaneous effect of intermittent exercise and omega-3 supplementation, it can be said that, possibly, exercise ability and omega-3 supplementation Increased control of homeostasis in coronary artery insufficiency suggests an important molecular mechanism underlying the benefits of these interventions.

Yearly Impact:  

View 74

Download 95 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    117
  • End Page: 

    126
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    82
  • Downloads: 

    139
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Knowledge management is the cycle of discovery, production, storage, distribution, and practical application of knowledge in the organization. Occurs. Work experiences, social groups, and outcomes that determine the path to progress may be limited (in the form of a profession or organization) or broad (the path to progress in society in a wide range of different professions and organizations). The series of jobs that people take in the organization should not be accidental, but the career path of the person in the organization should be planned based on the right logic and according to a specific goal. The concept of career path has undergone a fundamental change in recent years. Since in the present era, one of the most important concerns of today's organizations is the maintenance of valuable human resources of the organization, the importance of planning and managing the career path of human resources has increased greatly. Therefore, one of the basic tasks of human resource management is to strive for the maintenance and promotion of employees; In such a way that each person working in the organization can, after gaining experience and gaining job skills, be able to achieve career advancement and during the development stages of the organization. Currently, one of the problems that Mazandaran Social Security Organization suffer from is the lack of a suitable career path for employees according to the knowledge management model. This deficiency has led to the lack of a coherent performance appraisal system. In fact, the lack of strategic methods has caused ambiguity in the performance of employees and the results of this ambiguity have caused ambiguity in quality, lack of scientific competition, and lack of scientific ranking based on performance indicators. On the other hand, the allocation of rewards and salaries to each individual should be based on objective performance appraisal, and if it is based on subjective appraisals, performance will face difficulties. These problems are due to not establishing a suitable career path for them. In this study, we try to answer the question: What is the career development model based on the knowledge management model in Mazandaran Social Security Organization? Methods: According to the data collection method, this research is one of the descriptive researches in which the path analysis method has been used to test the relationship between the variables and the significance of the estimated models. The statistical population studied in this study consists of employees of all Social Security Organization of Mazandaran Province, whose number is 900 people according to the inquiry of the employment of the Social Security Organization of Mazandaran Province and in 2019 Are employed. Statistical sample size 269 people were selected through a random sampling method through the Krejcie Morgan table. In the survey stage, data collection was through a questionnaire. The research questionnaire includes the standard questionnaire of Shine career development path, Hemmati standard knowledge management questionnaire. The questions were designed into two categories: general questions and multiple-choice questions. In general, the questionnaire includes 4 general and demographic questions, 40 questions for the career path questionnaire, and 25 questions for the knowledge management questionnaire. The Career Path Questionnaire was developed by Shine in 2006. The answer to the questionnaire questions has 5 answer options as follows: each question is scored from 1 to 5 based on the Likert scale. Knowledge Management Questionnaire was designed by Hemmati in 2010. This questionnaire consists of 25 questions that have four dimensions of knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, knowledge application, and knowledge storage. The questionnaire questions are designed based on the Likert five-choice range. In this research, statistical methods have been used in two sections of descriptive and inferential statistics. SPSS software version 20 and pls3 were used for data processing and statistical analysis. Alpha level was considered p≥ 0. 05. Results: The results showed that the value of t in all paths between the research factors was equal to and greater than 2. 58. As a result, there is a significant relationship between the main factors and their sub-factors in the conceptual-analytical model of the research and also the results showed that the fit of the general research model is appropriate and strong. Conclusion: As the results showed, the value of t for the relationship between each of the main factors and sub-factors in the conceptual-analytical model of the research was higher than 1. 98. Therefore, 95% of the relationships between each of the main factors and sub-factors in the model were confirmed. The correlation value of these paths is also direct (positive). That is, by increasing the steps of the career path, technical competence will lead to entrepreneurial innovation, and the steps of the career path are significantly related from the first step to the fourth step, respectively. Therefore, while applying the dimensions of this model in the organization and developing the dimensions of career advancement in the organization, it can be concluded that employees and managers of the organization by stabilizing this model and implementing the legal and ethical requirements of its items in the organization can lead to national development and Social Security Organization policies. According to the research results, it is suggested that due to the direct relationship between knowledge management and career advancement, the content of in-service courses, nurturing ideas, creativity, and related brainstorming sessions to improve the career advancement of employees and managers during career advancement steps in Social Security Organization. It is also suggested that Social Security Organization managers use the high potential of the conceptual-analytical model of staff career development in this study to increase the use of staff skills in staff career development and use the model to achieve goals related to their organization.

Yearly Impact:  

View 82

Download 139 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    127
  • End Page: 

    136
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    120
  • Downloads: 

    182
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Sports psychology means the scientific study of psychological factors related to participation and performance in exercise, sports and other physical activities. Although sports psychology is very young, a lot of research has been done on it and one of its most important issues is psychological issues. One of the most important psychological concepts in sports psychology is the competitive anxiety of athletes. The competitive and stressful nature of exercise creates competitive anxiety. Competitive anxiety is competition anxiety. Competitive anxiety has three aspects: cognitive anxiety, physical anxiety and self-confidence. Professional athletes with high anxiety are more likely to have increased physiological arousal and decreased performance than athletes with low anxiety. The results of various studies have shown that competitive anxiety can affect the performance of athletes in different ways. Therefore, identifying the effective factors in athletes' competitive anxiety is doubly important due to its direct and threatening effect on various aspects of athletic performance. According to the results of various studies, there is a significant relationship between mindfulness and competitive anxiety. Mindfulness is the awareness that emerges when we pay attention to our experience in certain ways. Psychological toughness has been considered as a resilient personality trait in the face of stress. Hardiness is a set of personality traits that acts as a source of resistance to the pressures of life. Research on the competitive anxiety of athletes, especially national team athletes, is very important and failure to pay attention to it can lead to persistent fractures and withdrawal from the sport. Also, examining which of the variables of mindfulness and psychological toughness has a more effective role in predicting competitive anxiety in athletes, can be effective in providing solutions to prevent the adverse consequences associated with sports anxiety. Therefore, the present study seeks to answer the question that the model of predicting the competitive anxiety of national team athletes based on mindfulness mediated by psychological hardiness has a good fit? Methods: The research method is descriptive and of correlation designs and structural equation modeling method. The statistical population in this study included all athletes of national individual and team teams in 2019. To select the sample, the purposeful sampling method was used, so that among the athletes of national teams based on the criteria for entry and exit of the research (criteria for entry into the study, including being in the age category (18-35) Year, having at least a diploma, membership in a national team with a minimum of 6 months of national experience and criteria for leaving the research are a history or suffering from acute psychiatric disorders such as psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depression, Neurocognitive disorders, over the past year) and were available as a sample. According to the type of study and the number of predictor variables in the analysis of structural equations, according to the researchers, the sample size should be at least 10 times the number of variables plus 50. In the present study, there are a total of 21 subscales observed; Therefore at least 280 samples are required. In this study, up to 300 subjects were increased to reduce sampling error and prevent drop in subjects. Three standard questionnaires were used to assess the research variables. The Competitive Anxiety Scale (SCAL-2) was developed by Martens et al. (1990) and has 27 items that measure three independent factors including cognitive anxiety, physical anxiety, and self-esteem. Five-dimensional mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ) based on factor analysis study on five mindfulness questionnaires, including Attention Awareness (MAAM), Freiburg Mindfulness Questionnaire (FMI), Emotional and Cognitive Mindfulness Scale (CMAS) and A Mindfulness Questionnaire (MQ) has been developed. Psychological Toughness Questionnaire developed by Kubasa (1979). The Personal Perspectives Test is a self-report questionnaire that measures the degree of psychological toughness of individuals and has 50 items and three subscales of control, commitment and struggle. Amos computer software and SPSS version 22 and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the research data. Results: The results showed that mindfulness has a direct effect on competitive anxiety, the relationship between mindfulness and competitive anxiety is directly equal (t=-3. 39 and β =-0. 28). Therefore, the direct effect of mindfulness on the competitive anxiety of national team athletes has been confirmed with 95% confidence. Also, what results from the above table is that the relationship with the indirect effect of mindfulness on the competitive anxiety of national team athletes has been confirmed by stubbornness with 95% confidence (p<0. 05). The results also showed that toughness factors had a direct effect on competitive anxiety, the relationship between toughness and competitive anxiety is directly equal (t=-7. 35 and β =-0. 68). Therefore, the direct effect of stubbornness on competitive anxiety of national team athletes has been confirmed with 95% confidence. Conclusion: The aim of this study was to develop a model for predicting the competitive anxiety of athletes in national teams based on mindfulness mediated by psychological toughness. The results of statistical tests showed that mindfulness affects competitive anxiety directly and also through psychological toughness. In explaining this finding, it should be noted that mindfulness can predict the presence or absence of a decrease in the sense of success, as one of the underlying components of competitive anxiety. High awareness can indicate an athlete's correct understanding of himself and the situation in which he is present, and prevent the creation of destructive and incorrect thoughts and feelings, including the reduction of feelings of success. Among the limitations of the present study include: Structural relationships of variables were tested by modeling structural equations which is a non-experimental method. Non-experimental methods have limitations such as the lack of control of some interveners, such as the level of education in the sport, which should be considered. The sample of the present study was the athletes of Iranian national teams. Therefore, caution should be exercised in generalizing the results to other groups and other athletes. At the practical level, the findings of the present study suggested the importance and necessity of paying attention to the mediating variables of mindfulness as influential factors with competitive anxiety in athletes. By identifying these psychological structures as mediating variables in athletes, an effective step can be taken to prevent adverse outcomes in sports competitions. Developing training and intervention programs to improve the level of mindfulness, especially in national and international competitions, is another practical action that can be taken to moderate the levels of negative emotions and improve the athletic performance of athletes.

Yearly Impact:  

View 120

Download 182 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    137
  • End Page: 

    151
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    75
  • Downloads: 

    115
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Obesity and its complications cause the spread of many diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Changes in people's lifestyles and eating habits and their tendency to use fatty foods and reduced physical activity have led to the increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight. Increased inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 are known to be predictors of these diseases (1). Diet and aerobic-resistance exercise is one of the basic and common methods in weight control (4, 3). As a result of exercise and supplementation, a hormone called irisin is secreted from the skeletal muscle, which can increase muscle mass and reduce fat mass. (11) Some researchers in their studies reported a high and positive correlation between increased plasma irisin levels and decreased levels of some inflammatory factors such as interleukin-6 (8). Due to the lack of a proper training pattern to increase irisin levels and reduce inflammatory factors and also due to the ambiguity of the effects of aerobic-resistance training with a suitable supplement such as ursolic acid to increase irisin levels and also appropriate changes in Inflammatory factor levels therefore answer the question: Does twelve weeks of aerobic resistance training and ursolic acid supplementation affect the levels of irisin, IL-6, and overweight in middle-aged men? No? Methods: The research method is quasi-experimental and with pre-test-post-test design. The statistical population in this study were middle-aged men in Mashhad. According to the inclusion criteria after the initial screening by the researcher, 34 of them were randomly divided into three groups: supplement group (10), aerobic-resistance training group and The placebo (12) and the aerobic-resistance training group and supplement (12). 24 hours before the start of the protocol, data on height, weight, fat percentage, body mass index and a maximum repetition of individuals were measured. Subjects in the training groups performed aerobic exercises with an intensity of 60 to 75% of maximum heart rate and resistance exercises with an intensity of 60 to 75% of a maximum repetition for 12 weeks and three sessions per week on separate days. The aerobic-resistance-supplement group and the supplement group received 450 mg of ursolic acid supplement in three meals daily during the exercise program. The aerobic-resistance-placebo group also received three 150 mg capsules of placebo daily after each meal. The subjects in the supplement group did not perform any specific exercise activities and only performed their daily activities. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before the start of training and 48 hours after the last training session. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test at the significance level of P≥ 0. 05 and SPSS software version 21. Results: The serum levels of irisin increased which was significant between the aerobic-resistance training-supplement group and aerobic-resistance training-placebo group (P= 0. 001) and the aerobic-resistance training-supplement group and the supplement group (P= 0. 001). But there was no significant difference between the aerobic-resistance training-placebo group and the supplement group (P= 1. 00). Also, the level of plasma IL6 levels in the three groups was significantly reduced (P≥ 0. 001) but there was no difference between the groups. Conclusion: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic-resistance training and ursolic acid supplementation on irisin and interleukin 6 levels in overweight middle-aged men. The results showed a significant increase in irisin and a significant decrease in IL-6 in both aerobic-resistance-supplemental and aerobic-resistance-placebo exercise groups, which indicates a decrease in fat levels and an increase in lean mass. As a result, it can be said that the intensity of aerobic-resistance training and taking ursolic acid supplementation may have been beneficial for this age range with the aim of increasing plasma irisin levels and decreasing plasma IL6 levels. Increasing irisin stimulates angiogenesis, changes in fiber type and prevents muscle atrophy. Decreased IL6 levels may also reduce fat and increase body mass due to a decrease in catecholamine hormones and a lack of carbohydrate stores during aerobic-resistance training and the anti-inflammatory effect of ursolic acid. Considering the effect of ursolic acid supplementation and aerobic-resistance training on some anabolic hormones and reducing the levels of inflammatory factors such as IL-6 have recently been considered by researchers, more research is needed to prove the findings of this study. It can be said that aerobic-resistance training along with taking ursolic acid supplement will improve the condition and health of middle-aged people.

Yearly Impact:  

View 75

Download 115 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    152
  • End Page: 

    162
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    75
  • Downloads: 

    110
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Endometriosis means the presence of endometrial glands and uterine stroma outside the endometrium and uterine muscle, which is a chronic benign disease of women, which is mainly seen in the pelvic peritoneum with the ectopic formation of stroma and endometrial glands. Endometriosis is associated with a range of symptoms, the most common of which are chronic pelvic pain and infertility. The pathogenesis of this disease is influenced by various factors such as reverse transfer of endometrial cells, immunodeficiency, genetics, metaplasia, hormones, and environmental conditions. A widely accepted mechanism is Simpson's theory of recurrent menstruation, in which stem/progenitor cells flow into the pelvis and attach to the peritoneal mesothelium, where endometrial tissue grows abnormally. Recently, treatment goals have focused on inhibiting stem cell flow and the onset and proliferation of endometriosis. In this regard, studies have shown that an issue that may increase the risk of endometriosis is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress means that the body's balance is disturbed by an increase in oxidizing agents that cause oxidation of vital substances and tissues in the body. Recent studies have shown the role of stem cells and oxidative stress in the progression and control, as well as their role in the pharmacological treatment of infertility diseases, in which the role of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1A2) is recognized as an indicator in stem cells. This factor plays a role in the oxidation of aldehydes and the early differentiation of stem cells. Cells that are highly active in this enzyme have the ability to regenerate themselves. Under normal conditions (normal oxygen level), this enzyme effectively catalyzes the conversion of organic nitrate compounds, such as nitroglycerin, to nitric oxide. This factor plays a role in the oxidation of aldehydes and the early differentiation of stem cells. Studies have shown that the use of exercise interventions is effective in patients with endometriosis. Aerobic exercise is one of the most common training methods to improve infertility and gynecological diseases. B vitamins play an important role in the prevention and treatment of cancer by modulating cell signaling pathways. For example, vitamin B6 is known to be a potent anti-inflammatory, mutant, and nerve-enhancing agent that inhibits progression by activating tumor suppressor genes, inactivating angiogenesis, and activating anti-inflammatory genes, and inducing apoptosis. Cancerous tumors prevent many pathological changes that occur in response to the penetration of inflammatory cells. Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease that has complex pathophysiology and most of the details of this disease are still unknown; therefore, extensive research is needed to obtain information on the pathophysiology of this disease. Therefore, due to limited trial studies, inconsistencies and ambiguities in the results of the effectiveness of dietary and sports interventions, limited research on the preference of each of these methods with appropriate comparison, and the lack of a similar study in this community, The question is, does a low-intensity swimming training session with vitamin B6 affect the expression of ovarian tissue ALDH1A2 gene in rats of the endometriosis model? Methods: The research method was experimental with a post-test design. In determining the sample size, according to the sample size formula for continuous scores, if the expected differences are equal to 1. 5, with a test power of 80% at a significance level of α = 0. 05, the number of subjects per the group is equal to five. For this purpose, 25 adult Wistar 6-to 8-week-old rats with a mean weight and mean weight of 202. 85 ± 15. 62 g were purchased from Pasteur Institute and transferred to the research center. The animals were kept in special polycarbonate cages in an environment with an average temperature of 22 ± 1. 4 ° C, humidity of 55%, and a dark light cycle of 12: 12 hours. The care of the animals was carried out by the guidelines of the International Institute of Health and the protocols of this study, in compliance with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and the rules of medical ethics. The animals were treated with free pellet food and water. The food consumed by the animals was given to the animal at the rate of 10 grams per 100 grams of body weight according to the weekly weight gain. The protocol of this research was performed according to the international laws on laboratory animals with the code of ethics IR. IAU. SARI. REC. 1398. 152 and was approved by the ethics committee of the Islamic Azad University of Sari. Twenty-five adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: healthy control, patient control, patient + exercise, patient + vitamin, patient + vitamin + exercise. To model endometriosis, the rats were first anesthetized and after opening the abdominal muscle, ovarian tissue and part of the uterine tube tissue were removed and placed in a sterile container with a PBS cc and cut into pieces. These pieces were then transplanted into the abdominal and ovarian areas. Vitamin intake was 60 mg/kg per rat body weight and the swimming training program was for 8 weeks and five days each week for 30 minutes each day. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that in the patient control group ALDH1A2 level was significantly reduced compared to the healthy control group, patient + training and patient + training + vitamin (P = 0. 0007; P = 0. 009 and 0. 008, respectively P). Also in the patient + exercise group, the patient + vitamin level was significantly reduced compared to the healthy group (P = 0. 0038; P = 0. 006, respectively). This was while there was no significant difference between the other groups. Conclusion: In general, the results of the present study indicate that changes in key molecules or signaling pathways and gene expression in the process of endometriosis can improve the level of the disease and regular aerobic exercise and concomitant use. Vitamin B6 helps to control this disease and improve the level of this disease.

Yearly Impact:  

View 75

Download 110 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    163
  • End Page: 

    173
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    90
  • Downloads: 

    131
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Leisure is a new social field that has found meaning in the context of modernity and contemporary social and cultural change (2). Leisure refers to the opportunity and time when the responsible person is not responsible for any task or task, the time is at his disposal to do something with personal desire and motivation (6). In the meantime, the role of sport as a strategy that has the potential to help achieve health, social and economic goals is very important (8). The results of studies show that the participation rate of our people in public and recreational sports is 10%. However, this participation rate is more than 80% in countries such as Finland and Sweden (10). Middle age is the period when the population will be the largest in a few decades. During this period, which ends in old age, it is necessary to adapt to training and experience and continue to exercise over the years. Exercise at this age can prevent an unusual increase in free radicals at rest and in the range of physical activity (12). According to the research background and the above-mentioned topics, this study seeks to provide a promotional model for middle-aged leisure in Iran with an emphasis on sports activities. Also seeking answers to the question of whether spending leisure time for middle-aged people in Iran with an emphasis on sports activities is related to demographic factors in Iran? Methods: The present study is a mixed research that included two parts: quantitative and qualitative. The qualitative method in the present study was the grounded theory method, which was designed according to the Strauss and Corbin method. The statistical population of the present study in the qualitative part included experts in the field of sports management who had sufficient information on the subject of research and in the quantitative part of the study included all middle-aged men and women aged 40 to 65 years in Iran. In order to identify the samples of the qualitative part, purposive sampling method was used. This sampling continued until the theoretical saturation was reached and finally 14 people were identified as samples in the qualitative section. In the quantitative part, Cochran's sample volume formula was used to determine the research samples. The sample size was 384 people with an error level of 0. 05% and the sample was selected by convenience sampling. In order to conduct this research, in the first stage (comparative study), the present study was conducted as a library and an attempt was made to describe and analyze the research related to the development of a promotional model of pastime using the data obtained from program documents. Middle-aged leisure in Iran was emphasized with emphasis on sports activities, and the analysis performed by the researcher in the first stage led to the improvement of knowledge and the compilation of interview guides for the second stage. In the next step (qualitative interviews), the data theory method (grounded theory) was used to construct the proposed research model. Then, in the quantitative part, a researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect information. The questions were arranged in two parts based on the information obtained from the qualitative part of the research. The first part includes general information about the respondents and the second part consists of 54 questions. Was. Which examined the five components of causal conditions, contextual conditions, intervening conditions, main phenomenon, actions and consequences. Pattern and model design using structural equation modeling (SEM) and interpretive structural modeling were used. All data analysis processes of the present study were performed in SPSS and PLS software. Results: The results showed that contextual factors, causal factors, strategies, individual and national consequences and intervening factors are among the main dimensions of the research, each of which is related to the other. It was also found that the data did not have a normal distribution. Therefore, there is no covariance-based software and SmartPLS-based covariance software should be used. Finally, according to Figures 1 and 2, the value of T-Value for 5 relationships related to the research hypotheses is more than 1. 96 and all relationships are confirmed. This means that the model fits properly. Conclusion: Sports leisure activities in the social sphere cause middle-aged people to have a wide range of social effects for individuals. One of the primary effects of sports activities is to break out of isolation and socialize. That is, sports activity creates a strong bond between peers and learns attitudes, values, skills and general attitudes such as chivalry and discipline. He is thought to have learned lessons from participating in sports that will affect his success in other areas of life. This has led to the need to develop physical and mental abilities as well as changes in middle-aged lifestyle has led to a greater understanding of the need to develop leisure sports activities. This issue has led to the present study to determine the causal factors such as physical capacity, lifestyle and psychological conditions for the development of middle-aged sports leisure activities (16). It is also necessary to provide the initial basis for the development of sports leisure activities. Undoubtedly, the development of sports leisure activities in each group has its own conditions and characteristics. Although there are some principles and standards for sports leisure activities in general, but for the development of middle-aged sports leisure activities, it is necessary to create the initial bases in this field. It seems that the infrastructural aspects of the existence of specialized spaces for middle-aged sports leisure activities, the existence of special sports equipment for middle-aged sports leisure activities and inter-sectoral interaction in promoting middle-aged sports leisure activities cause the basic infrastructure to develop leisure activities. Provide middle-aged sports (3).

Yearly Impact:  

View 90

Download 131 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    174
  • End Page: 

    184
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    103
  • Downloads: 

    126
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: The meniscus is a semicircular fibrocartilaginous structure that is integral to the long term health of the knee joint. The primary function of these tissues is to distribute load across the tibiofemoral joint (1). A common injury inside the knee joint is the tear of the medial meniscus (2). Meniscus injuries are very common among athletes. Studies have suggested that there is an overall incidence of meniscal tears requiring surgery of 60 to 70 per 100, 000 persons yearly and approximately one-third of these tears are sport related (3). Literature has supported meniscus repair when possible (8 – 10). Prevalence of such injuries among athletes puts stresses on the medical system yearly and conveys significant psychological and socio-economical costs for the athlete and the sport system of each country. Significant increases in meniscus injuries make vast investigations inevitable in expanding treatment methods. Despite researchers’ findings that even removing a small part of a meniscus interferes with the meniscus ability to carry out its tasks (15), most treatment cases apply partial or complete removal of the meniscus. An athlete with a meniscal injury can be returned to activity quickly and safely with appropriate treatment and rehabilitation. Nowadays, applying rehabilitative exercise protocols before surgery is prevailing to minimize surgery complications and the rehabilitation period. So, the aim of this research was to study athletes injured knee range of motion after a course of rehabilitation exercises. Methods: The research method was quasi-experimental and it was applied research. The statistical population of this research was composed of 18 to 25 years old athletes who appointed to orthopedic clinics in Tehran in 1398 (2019-2020) with a history of meniscus injury. Admission criteria to this study were the athletes with a meniscus injury, diagnosed by the orthopedic surgeon, who was a candidate for meniscus surgery in the next three months and six months has passed from their injury occurrence. Since in many cases meniscus injury is accompanied by other injuries in knee ligaments, a thorough history of the patients was recorded to exclude the ones who were having any other manifestations except for the meniscus tear. Also, the severity of the injury was reported by orthoepic surgeons, and patients with lower or higher levels of injury from the average were excluded from this research. Twenty-four athletes with injured meniscus (medial meniscus) were selected through convenience judgmental sampling from whom half undertook exercise protocol and the other half were in the control group. Subjects’ range of motion of the injured knee was measured by Biodex isokinetic dynamometer and recorded at the beginning and after eight weeks of selected rehabilitation exercises. Subjects of the control group undertook exercise protocol for 8 weeks, individually and under the supervision of the researcher which was performed one hour a day on daily basis (except for Fridays). The protocol used in this study was adapted from the exercise program used in Lennon and Totlis investigation (2017) Rehabilitation and Return to Play Following Meniscal Repair (17). Based on FITT principles, the exercise protocol was modified and adjusted for the subjects by the investigator under the supervision and guidance of an orthopedic surgeon and a doctor of physical therapy. Of the subjects, two were excluded from the study during weeks five and six because of their fear of pain and injury aggravation. Also because of surgery cancellation, another subject was eliminated in the 6th week. Limitations of this study were being unable to use random sampling. Only 24 patients were referred by the orthopedic surgeons in a 12-month period due the to age range of the subjects and characteristics of meniscal repair; this number even abated during the research (at the end of the study 21 subjects was remained). Also, the mental condition of the subjects was not deliberated. Results: For inferential data analysis and the probable differences between group means, repeated measure ANOVA was used. Statistical data analysis implemented in 0. 05 level of significance with the use of SPSS version 22 (version 22, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Based on the subject’ s demographic data, P-value was not significant in any of the measured factors (P>0. 05), indicating homogeneity of the control and experimental group. Research variables followed normal distribution which was checked using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Box test results showed that the covariance matrices of dependent variables in both research groups are consistent. Also, Mauchly’ s sphericity test approved the assumption of sphericity. Therefore, from the output of SPSS, the measures were used that were compatible with the sphericity hypothesis, and F critical values related to Greenhouse-Geisser correction was reported. Considering the results of repeated measure ANOVA, the mean values were significantly different in pre-test and post-test; for the level of differences, changes were not significant. Also, the linear gradient of differences was significant. Results suggested that in total knee range of motion has differed significantly in both groups (progression percentage: 5%). Therefore, 8-weeks of preoperative physical rehabilitation exercises were effective on the knee range of motion of athletes. Conclusion: Results of the current study indicated that the exercise protocol was effective on knee range of motion. Improvements in knee joint range of motion in the experimental group can be associated with effects of rehabilitation exercises on knee conditions in athletes with injured meniscus such as physiological effects, muscle strengthening, and musculoskeletal coordination. Also, improvement in range of motion as the result of rehabilitation exercises can be the effect of progress in the subject’ s psychological factors; in theory, psychological factors play a critical role in functional performance and can potentially affect physical functions. It can be stated that challenging the functional system is critical in rehabilitation both before and after surgery which soothes the surgery process and accelerates healing and return to play. Thereby, it can be stated that a proper course of rehabilitation exercises can affect the range of motion among athletes with a meniscus injury, and incorporating preoperative rehabilitation exercises can be an effective phase in the management of meniscal injuries. Understanding the knee motor function of athletes with injured meniscus is of great importance in recognizing impairments in the joint, prognosis, designing treatment program, and level of success. So, considering the effectiveness of this method which did not have any negative effects, applying this exercise protocol is suggested for athletes who are candidates for meniscus surgery; which needs to be prescribed by orthopedics and physiotherapists and be applied under the guidance and supervision of the associated specialists.

Yearly Impact:  

View 103

Download 126 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    185
  • End Page: 

    194
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    66
  • Downloads: 

    116
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: The coach is considered as the strongest factor of socialization in the physical realm. Effective coaches significantly affect athletes' performance, behavior, and motivational and emotional aspects. Research on the conceptual model of coaching effectiveness has also grown exponentially over the years. Effective rye significantly affects athletes' performance, behavior, and motivational and emotional aspects. Given the effective role of coaching effectiveness in advancing the goals of club management and the multiplicity of related factors, researchers seek to identify the variables that are associated with this important factor. One of the cases in which the effect of other variables has been studied in recent research is individual creativity. At the level of championship and professional sports, experience shows that coaches who are technically and coaching efficient have played a more effective role in the success of their teams and in providing better work and player satisfaction. Recognizing the factors affecting the mental and physical condition of athletes in coaching and training sports skills, especially in national level athletes, can be very decisive in their success. For this reason, and considering the importance of the role of coaching behaviors on the psychological processes and performance of athletes, sports psychologists became interested in studying the consequences of different coaching styles. These studies can help increase the effectiveness of coaches, create a suitable sports environment, and improve the performance of athletes. Given that so far few studies have been conducted on the characteristics of effective trainers and their relationship with other variables, especially individual creativity, the present study may be one of the few studies in this field in the country and on the other hand, due to the needs of the institute. Sports clubs to obtain comprehensive information on the employment of effective coaches, the present study aims to study the relationship between the effectiveness of coaches and the individual creativity of the country's zurkhaneh athletes, and in this regard, the main question in this way raises whether the effectiveness of coaches is related to the individual creativity of Zurkhaneh athletes? Methods: The research method was a descriptive correlation which was performed using structural equations. The statistical population of the research, based on the information obtained through the Federation of Zurkhaneh Sports and Wrestling, is 1573 people, which includes all athletes in all age groups of juniors, teenagers, adults, and veterans in all national championships. In 2019, they competed. Thus, 550 questionnaires were distributed among the statistical sample of the research, of which 396 questionnaires, which were completely completed, were returned by the athletes. In order to collect information, three questionnaires were used as follows. A personal information questionnaire that measured the variables of age, marital status, level of education, history of sports activity, championship history, and type of team presence. The coach effectiveness questionnaire has 24 questions and four subscales of motivation (7 questions), the effectiveness of game or competition strategies (7 questions), training and education (6 questions), and development of personality traits (4 questions). The alpha coefficient for all questions is 0. 95 and internal consistency for motivation effect subscale is 0. 92, game or competition strategies subscale is 0. 88, training and education subscale is 0. 87 and personality traits development subscale is 0. 86 and reliability is Questionnaire was calculated 0. 87. Abedi Individual Creativity Assessment Questionnaire 1984, which had 60 three-choice questions and four subscales, which are: fluidity, expansion, initiative, and flexibility. The higher your score on this questionnaire, the more creative you are. These data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods such as elongation test and path analysis (structural equation modeling) using SPSS and lisrel software. Results: The results showed that the effectiveness of coaches, in general, did not affect athletes' sports creativity. Also, among the components of coaches' effectiveness, only the component of the effectiveness of competition strategies affects athletes' sports creativity, and the three components of competition strategy, training and training, and development of personality traits do not affect athletes' sports creativity. Conclusion: Based on the results of the research, it is suggested that coaches working in zurkhaneh sports promote the effectiveness of coaches and athletes' creativity by using appropriate decision-making methods, which in this way and considering that in zurkhaneh sports Moral virtues have a high status, they can bring more success. This research, like all researches, had limitations, which are: Answering the questions of the questionnaire depending on the judgment of the subjects, so their tendencies, prejudices, insights, and experiences may have influenced the results of the research. Another limitation of the present study was the problems related to data collection, which may be due to insufficient motivation of the studied samples or low cooperation of their loved ones.

Yearly Impact:  

View 66

Download 116 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    19
  • End Page: 

    30
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    153
  • Downloads: 

    270
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Cardiovascular disease is considered one of the most important causes of mortality in many countries of the world. Cardiovascular disease causes physical and psychological complications for these patients. Their quality of life is usually reduced under the influence of simultaneous feelings of depression, anxiety, anger and stress (12). Stress has been shown to affect a wide range of cognitive and non-cognitive skills. It has been shown to impair memory, cognitive and executive functions, and to affect risk-taking behavior, which in turn impacts important day-to-day decisions. Prolonged stress can lead to both physical health problems (e. g., heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes) and mental health problems (e. g., depression or anxiety), although the effects are not always clear (34). There is a lot of evidence associated with the psychological, physical and emotional implications associated with heart failure in patients. In addition, the family of cardiovascular patients who have the responsibility to take care of them also have many problems (13). Positive psychology is a new advent approach in psychology that addresses the happiness and well-being of individuals. This approach tries to use people's abilities and capacities to increase people's lives in the face of events and disadvantages, and increase their satisfaction with life (31). In recent years, the fields of preventive cardiology and positive psychology have both set ambitious goals that go beyond simply reducing risk of disease to include increasing healthy longevity, improving quality of life, preserving good mental health (32). The relationship of mindfulness with the pathological variables such as stress and health variables like adjustment ability and emotional functioning, psychological well-being, and emotional, psychological and social wellbeing have been well illustrated. Other variables that are significant in the field of health and positive psychology are the concept of happiness tha is composed of cognitive and emotional components (31). Happiness promotes activity and initiative, but no indication for negative effects on creativity. Last but not least, happiness is positive for health; happy people live longer (33). and Hope increases the ability to cope with problems. Hope is an important adaptation mechanism in chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (10). Mindfulness reduces negative thoughts and increases mental and physical health (16). Mindfulness means maintaining a moment-by-moment awareness of our thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment, through a gentle, nurturing lens (14). Mindfulness training, which are more concerned with the development of focus attention., could be associated with significant improvements in selective and executive attention. This mental state allows one to experience thoughts and feelings in a way that emphasizes their subjectivity and transient nature. Mindfulness has been associated with increased health outcomes. Mindfulness therapy and medical care together are effective methods for treating cardiovascular patients. According to recent research, mindfulness, reduces physical problems and psychological disorders and increases happiness, hope and quality of life (12, 10). Recently, due to the development of chronic physical and psychological disorders the mindfulness and lifestyle have been drawn into attention. But there are few empirical research on these subjects and most research has been performed on recognition of the therapeutic effects of mind-consciousness. Therefore, The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness on stress, happiness and Hope in cardiovascular patients. Methods: According to the purpose, this study is applied. In this study which was a Quasi-Experimental with per-test, post-test with the control group, the sample group was selected by available sampling method from all cardiovascular patients referred to Shahid Rajaei Heart Hospital and Shariati Hospital in Karaj. Therefore, 40 cardiovascular patients were chosen and assigned to Experimental and control groups. To assess the severity of Stress, Dass-21 test was used, happiness Oxford OHI and Hope was measured by Snyder Hope Questionnaire. The experimental group received 10 90-minute mindfulness training sessions. After training, Dass-21, Oxford OHI and Snyder Hope were used again for both experimental and control groups. Results: Data were analyzed by SPSS 22 and the results of ANCOVA showed that There was a significant difference between groups regarding stress, happiness and Hope. Mindfulness has been able to reduce stress, and increase happiness and Hope of participants in the experimental group. According to the results, 72. 2% of stress changes, 72% of happiness changes and 86% of Hope changes in the experimental group were related to the impact of mindfulness The results showed that mindfulness training has been effective in reducing stress mindfulness, improving happiness and Hope in cardiovascular patients. Conclusion: The results showed that mindfulness training has been effective in reducing stress, improving happiness and Hope in cardiovascular patients. mindfulness meditation techniques as they are empowering and teach skills individuals can use on their own to control depression and other health problems. It has been associated with enhanced emotional regulation It can be defined as bringing non-evaluative awareness to one’ s inner and outer environment and then focusing attention on a limited range of experience (29). Mindfulness training focuses on attention to moment-by-moment experience and consists of routine exercises such as bringing the mind’ s attention to the present (for example, by focusing attention on one’ s breathing or on what one is eating). These techniques are seen as ideal training to improve self-control, perhaps because most of the exercises focus on training the ability to inhibit one’ s impulses (34). mindfulness may decrease stress and mood dysfunction-related psycho physiologic activation by strengthening positive reappraisal and emotion regulation skills. Mindfulness has helped patients to understand the events without distortion and judgment. Mindfulness, in general, through ultra-consciousness, delaying conceptual processing and separating a person from cognitive events can be effective in improving lifestyle (22). Happiness through better assessment of individual skills and more positive life events than negative events, interpersonal skills, Optimism, hope and a positive look at life can motivate and empower people to lead a healthier lifestyle, better manage stress and a sense of responsibility for health (31). Joyful people usually evaluate their skills better than others and remind positive events more than negative ones and make better decisions in their life In other words, mind-consciousness can create positive changes in happiness and psychological well-being. Therefore, Mindfulness can improve cardiovascular Patients stress, happiness and Hope.

Yearly Impact:  

View 153

Download 270 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    195
  • End Page: 

    209
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    350
  • Downloads: 

    191
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Addiction is one of the four world crises, along with environmental degradation, poverty and famine, war and bloodshed, and the emergence of emerging diseases, threatening the health of human societies. Drug addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is associated with unpleasant habits and a strong desire to consume among its users and has caused many sufferings and calamities for many years by causing health problems for its abusers. Many people, due to the unpleasant side effects of addictive substances, its unwanted dangers, as well as the legal problems that these substances cause them over time, insist on using these substances and suffer from physical and psychological consequences by repeating their consumption pattern. . Substance abuse disorder can lead to many substance abuse patients with psychological disorders such as stress, anxiety and depression. Nervous aggression, severe mood swings, high irritability, manic, suspicious and risky behaviors, high-risk behaviors such as aggression to oneself and others, are some of the psychological effects of addiction that occur over time. In this disease, the importance of psychological therapies and coping methods (prevention) are considered as basic principles. The importance of addiction in Iran is the highest prevalence in the world with 2. 8%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hypnotherapy on impulsivity, coping styles and addiction symptoms of addicts. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 36 patients with a mean age of 29. 38 years with a standard deviation of 3. 38 in the hypnotherapy group and in a control group of 30. 77 years with a standard deviation of 4. 45 from clients referred to the Bandar Anzali Liberation Cottage Camp, with opioid use disorder in Aban to Bahman 1398. Questionnaire compilers were selected by available methods and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The present study was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest and posttest design with a control group. Experimental method is a set of research methods that is used to find cause and effect relationships between two or more variables. The statistical population in this study is all patients referred to the short-term and medium-term residential center (camp) of Bandar Anzali Liberation Cottage in 1398 who have opioid use disorder conditions. Second, they were eligible through a clinical interview based on DSM-5 criteria. Sampling method is available. In this way, among the clients to the short-term and medium-term accommodation center (camp) of Anzali Port Liberation Cottage, a questionnaire was provided to those who were eligible to participate in the research. And then in the second stage for sample selection, among those who received a high score in the questionnaire, 36 people (in a pilot study, a sample size of at least 15 people in each group is recommended. The group was considered) randomly assigned to two groups of 18 people (one experimental group and one control group). The experimental group underwent hypnotherapy for 8 two-hour sessions and the control group was placed on a waiting list. At the end of the intervention, the groups were retested. The method of data collection in the form of clinical interviews and questionnaires was as followsData collection tools, Barat Impulsivity questionnaire, Madsley addiction profile and Lazarus and Folkman coping styles (WOCQ) were completed with high validity and reliability before and after treatment. The experimental group underwent hypnotherapy in 8 sessions of 2 hours for 4 months. Results: The results showed that hypnotherapy reduced impulsivity, emotion-focused coping style and addiction symptoms, and increased problem-oriented coping style of addicts. Conclusion: The concept of hypnosis is reminiscent of the innumerable perceptions of non-specialist clinicians. Even the term hypnosis can be misleading because it is derived from the Greek root hypnos meaning sleep. In fact, hypnosis is not a dream, but rather a complex process that requires conscious concentration and attention. Hypnosis is a powerful tool for directing the innate abilities of imagery, imagination and attention. Many believe that the ballinger transmits hypnotic trance to the patient, or that the ballinger has the power to penetrate the patient. In fact, it is the patient who is prone to hypnosis, and the key role is to assess the patient's ability to exploit this strength and help the patient to discover and use it effectively. Patient motivation, personality style, and biological aptitude may play a role. During hypnotic trance, focused attention and visualization are enhanced and at the same time environmental awareness is reduced. This ecstasy can be induced by a hypnotist through a coded method of induction, but ecstasy can also occur spontaneously. Hypnosis and spontaneous trance are traits that vary from person to person, but remain relatively constant throughout one's life cycle. Hypnotherapy can be used as a powerful tool to orient innate abilities, imagery, imagination, attention, hypnotic inductions and involuntary indoctrination to increase the mental health of addicts.

Yearly Impact:  

View 350

Download 191 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    210
  • End Page: 

    219
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    134
  • Downloads: 

    204
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the valley of developed countries and is responsible for one-fifth of deaths. Today, diseases known as special diseases affect a part of the society in which we live. These diseases, in addition to the physical problems and physical injuries they inflict on the patient, affect a large part of the psychological and emotional aspects of the patients, which directly affect the course of the disease. It is very important to know and study the psychological components that change in these diseases and affect the psychological dimension of the patient's life; Because for every patient, life is still going on in any situation, and every patient should try to fight the disease as much as possible and slow its progression, which in itself involves a strong spirit, as a result of examining the psychological and emotional issues in this. Patients are very important and thought-provoking. One of the diseases that causes deep emotional and emotional problems in the patient and his family is cancer. Cancer is known as one of the most common non-communicable diseases, which is a disorder in the rate of cell proliferation and differentiation, and can occur in any part of the body and at any age, and can attack the healthy tissues of the body and cause cancer. Studies show that after the onset of the disease, patients' mood is greatly affected and their hope of survival is significantly reduced. This is the reason why they do not pay enough attention to their treatment and do not take doctors' instructions very seriously; these patients do not make much effort to recover and in fact, by doing so, they do worsen their health. One of the topics in psychology is how people react to physical illnesses that can have far-reaching harms to the individual. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the schema therapy approach on reducing depression and mental rumination in women with cancer in Shiraz. Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental design based on pre-test and post-test with a control group. In this study, therapeutic intervention in schema-based therapy was considered as an independent variable and the dependent variables included depression and mental rumination. The statistical population of the study included all 300 women who were referred to the Omid Cancer Foundation of Shiraz Namazi Hospital and Saadi Hospital in Shiraz for treatment and support of cancer problems, which numbered 300 people. Simple random sampling was used to select the sample. Thus, from among the three central centers and after announcing the call to participate in the treatment plan, 50 people who want to participate in the plan during the interview and psychological assessment and implementation of the mentioned tests to diagnose depression and rumination randomly in two Schema therapy group (n = 25) and control group (n = 25). Criteria for entering the psychological diagnosis of depression and rumination were also in the age range of 20 to 60 years and at least having up to the third grade of education and definitive diagnosis of cancer by relevant specialists. At first, Beck Depression Inventory and Nolan Hoxma and Marlowe Ruminant Questionnaire were administered in both groups. The experimental group then received schema therapy for 12 hours with 2 sessions and the control group did not receive treatment. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to investigate the effect of the independent variable on the dependent. Results: The results showed that the linear composition of the dependent variables was significantly different in the experimental and control groups (p = 0. 001; F = 6. 105). The results of one-way analysis of covariance in comparison with depression and rumination showed that for the variables of depression and rumination, the value of F calculated for the pre-test effect (7. 820 and 9. 587) were statistically significant, respectively. In other words, post-test scores were affected by pre-test scores and the effect of schema treatment (P <0. 001 and P <0. 001), respectively, after adjusting the means of the two groups based on the pre-test score, It is statistically significant. Considering the means of the two groups, it shows that the score of the subjects in the experimental group in the post-test has decreased compared to the control group. Therefore, it can be concluded that the schema therapy approach is effective in reducing depression and mental rumination. The value of Eta squared also shows that about 77% of the variance of depression and about 65% of the variance of mental rumination can be explained through the schema therapy approach. Conclusion: In general, the results show that the schema therapy approach is effective in reducing the symptoms of depression and rumination in people with cancer, so the use of schema therapy can be useful in improving depressive and psychological symptoms in cancer patients.

Yearly Impact:  

View 134

Download 204 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    220
  • End Page: 

    228
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    80
  • Downloads: 

    104
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: In obese adults, the risk of metabolic syndrome is increased and obesity and inactivity are the causes of adipocytokine disorders and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in these people (2). Adipsin is one of these adipokines. The identification of adipsin as an important factor in diseases such as obesity and diabetes is not very old and the function of this protein is not yet fully known (4). However, the researchers found that the secretion of adipsin from adipose tissue triggers the synthesis of C3a, which is involved in the islets of Langerhans, where beta cells are present, stimulates insulin secretion and ultimately reduces hepatic glucose output. 5). Adipsin may also be indirectly associated with adipose tissue fat metabolism. This contradiction has caused the function of this protein to remain obscure until now (7). On the other hand, one of the organs that is directly related to obesity in the liver and fibroblast growth factor (FGF21) belongs to the subfamily hFGF (FGF19), FGF21, FGF23) (10), which is a key regulator. In maintaining energy homeostasis and metabolism of glucose and fat, so that its elimination impairs glucose homeostasis and weight gain (15) It has also attracted considerable attention as a molecule, a promising treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes (16). Studies show that FGF21 levels are higher in obese people and develop a state of resistance to FGF21. However, anti-obesity measures of FGF21 seem to lead to weight loss by increasing the use of fats and reducing fat mass (17). Finally, it is believed that increased release of apolipoprotein-A and increased expression of ABCA1 in macrophages have a significant effect on the process of reverse cholesterol transport and plasma HDL-C formation and protect against atherosclerosis (23). Given the above and the importance and role of adipsin, FGF21 and ABCA1 in obesity and its associated complications, as well as the existence of conflicting results regarding the effect of exercise on these variables and insufficient information in this field, the question is whether intense intermittent exercise training on adipsin, Are fibroblast growth factor and ABCA1 effective in obese men? Methods: For the present applied and quasi-experimental research, among obese men with body mass index above 30 24 referring to Ilam Health House in the age range of 40-30 years, 24 people were randomly selected and divided into two groups of high intensity intermittent exercise (12 people). and control (n = 12) were divided. Then they practiced for 8 weeks and three sessions a week in such a way that the subject walked 20 meters for 30 seconds at maximum speed in a round trip and then walked for 30 seconds. The exercise in the first week consisted of 4 repetitions of activity and 4 rests, in the following weeks one activity and one rest were added each week. Blood samples were taken from the brachial vein in fasting conditions 24 hours before the start of the protocol and 48 hours after the end of the protocol after 8 weeks. Finally, descriptive statistics, Shapiro-Wilk tests and univariate analysis of covariance (ANKOVA) were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT) caused a significant increase in adipsin, FGF21 and ABCA1 in obese men. Conclusion: The results showed that high-intensity intermittent exercise increased FGF21 in obese men. Consistent with this finding, Khalfi et al. (2015) investigated the effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on serum levels of irzin and fibroblast growth hormone 21 (FGF21) and insulin resistance in obese male rats. The results showed that in the HIIT group compared to OC levels of irisin and FGF21 increased significantly, while MICT had no significant effect on both hormones (27). In another study in the same field, Toloui Azar et al. (2015) examined the effect of high-intensity interval training on serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21, insulin resistance and lipid profile in inactive obese women. Based on the results of the present study, it seems that HIIT training with increasing 21FGF values may play an effective role in glucose homeostasis, reduce fat mass and increase energy consumption and be considered to prevent obesity and improve insulin resistance index (18). Another finding of the present study indicates a significant increase in ABCA1 in obese men. In connection with this finding, Gandmani et al. (2015) investigated the effect of eight weeks of intermittent and continuous endurance training on MicroRNAs associated with reverse cholesterol transfer in elderly Wistar rats. The results showed an increase in ABCA1 mRNA expression in the two training groups compared to the control group, but this increase was greater in periodic training than in continuous training, which is consistent with the present results (30).

Yearly Impact:  

View 80

Download 104 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    229
  • End Page: 

    245
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    203
  • Downloads: 

    277
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: One of the problems of crisis management in Iran is how to provide resources to carry out its activities in the face of severe economic sanctions. One of the economic and political tools to impose the demands of one country, in other words, to secure its interests by another country, is to use sanctions. In this case, the large and influential country in the world of politics and economics will be able to impose economic and political costs on the smaller country by imposing restrictions on the smaller economy and the less influential one. The association of other important economic and political actors of the world with the great provocative country takes on more serious dimensions. The same situation is assumed in the case of sanctions imposed on the Iranian economy. Sanctions are a series of actions that are applied without the use of threatening forces against the country, target or individual. International sanctions are penalties imposed in the context of the declared consequences of a failure to comply with international standards or requirements. Sanctions are instrumentally classified into economic and non-economic sanctions; Non-economic sanctions, such as not issuing visas to officials of the embargoed government in an international organization, opposing the embargoed country's offer to host important international events such as the World Cup, the Olympics, etc., can be achieved by means other than imposing economic costs. Economic sanctions have trade and financial aspects that in trade sanctions, prohibitions and restrictions on exports and imports are applied, but in financial sanctions, the sanctioner refrains from financial transactions, money transfers and investments, and uses his influence in International financial institutions prevent any technical cooperation, formal investment or lending agreements Seventhly, it should be noted that the most severe form of financial sanctions is the freezing or confiscation of the assets of the sanctioned country or their leaders. The main question that arises in this regard is what effect have the sanctions had on the health, public health and supply of medicine in Iran? Methods: The present study was based on descriptive and analytical methods. According to the library research method, for collecting information after bibliography and collecting various political sources, filing tools and note-taking forms were used. Results: In order to explain the direct effects of sanctions on the current state of society, different theories and views by economists. Politicians and community health managers have been raised. The results of this study show that the health status, public health and welfare of citizens as well as the status of drug supply are directly affected by sanctions. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that economic sanctions have definitely always been associated with harmful effects that, without any distinction or distinction, harm the military and civilian forces, especially the vulnerable groups of countries. Difficulty and even lack of access to arbitrators, lack of currency transfer and the impossibility of providing drugs and in general the negative impact on the right to health and welfare of citizens and the inability of the government to ensure the right to health, the most important negative effects of sanctions on management The crisis is an unexpected event in Iran. The results of the paper showed that international sanctions have directly and indirectly affected the country's crisis management in the last decade. Sanctions, in particular, have created serious obstacles to the supply of needed medicines and the delivery of humanitarian aid. Sanctions on foreign exchange transactions and Iranian banks have severely restricted the opening of credit to importers of drugs and medical equipment, which has effectively led to the extension of sanctions to drugs and medical equipment. A number of pharmaceutical companies are refusing to sell drugs and medical equipment directly to Iran because of sanctions and to avoid the possible consequences of violating sanctions or even being barred from US markets. As a result, access to these detrimental items from international intermediaries at unconventional prices is restricted. Due to the expansion of sanctions on shipping companies and the lack of insurance for Iranian shipments, the cost of transportation to Iran has increased, which includes the increase in the cost of medicine and medical equipment, while there are reports of non-shipment, including drug shipments to Iran in There is a result of sanctions. The imbalance in the balance between the price of Rials and valid foreign currencies as a result of sanctions has led to an increase in the price of imported drugs and medical equipment, and as a result of the inability of the majority of patients to prohibit drugs.

Yearly Impact:  

View 203

Download 277 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    246
  • End Page: 

    256
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    61
  • Downloads: 

    125
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Motivation is a factor that moves a person from within and in fact is the driving force of human effort and dynamism. Motivation is the first important step for any kind of action or change in behavior. Motivation gives people energy to carry out activities and guides their activities. Motivation has been introduced as the most important learning factor in many learning theories. Many people rely on motivation to do their work with great enthusiasm. In the field of sport and exercise, motivation as a general psychological concept has been systematically and extensively studied in the last two decades. In a classification, motivation is categorized into internal motivation and external motivation. According to Weinberg (2011), types of internal motivation including knowledge, performance and stimulation and types of external motivation including external regulation, replicated regulation, regulation It is internalized and the setting is integrated. Scanlan et al. (1993) defined sports commitment as a psychological structure that reflects a desire and determination to continue participating in sports. In Scanlan et al. 's sports commitment model, enjoyment of sport is defined as an effective positive response to the sporting experience that reflects feelings of satisfaction, love, and entertainment. The study of the relationship between sport and personality traits is one of the fields of research. However, little research has been done on the psychological mechanisms of the effect of personality traits on health-related behaviors. Motivation is one of the psychological mechanisms that has attracted the attention of researchers. But the findings on the relationship between personality traits and motivation of people who exercise do not follow a fixed pattern. On the other hand, studies have shown that there is a relationship between personality traits and motivation. Findings show that personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness and conscientiousness lead to increased sports motivation and success, and many studies in the framework of the theory of autonomy in sports have shown a high level of independence of action on sports results and It leads to a better person. Therefore, based on the theory of autonomy, motivational processes affecting sports behaviors can be explained through personality traits. Therefore, the present study investigates the model of the effect of personality traits mediated by sports commitment on sports motivation of wrestlers in Mazandaran province. Methods: The method of the present study was correlational and structural equation modeling and applied in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the study included all wrestlers of Mazandaran province (about 870 people) and the sample group of 405 people (312 men and 93 women) with a range of 16 to 48 years who were selected by available sampling method. 77% of the sample were men and 23% were women, 30. 1% were married and 69. 9% were single, 54. 1% had a diploma or lower, 31. 6% had an associate or bachelor's degree, 12. 3% had a master's degree and 2 The percentage of doctoral studies were 4. 2% in the field of physical education and 58. 8% in the field of non-physical education. The Neo Personality Inventory (Costa and McCray, 1992) was used to assess personality traits, the Plitter et al. (1995) Sports Motivation Scale was used to assess athletic motivation, and the Scanlan et al. (1993) Sports Commitment Questionnaire was used to assess athletic commitment. Results: These findings indicate a good fit of the proposed model and the model of the effect of personality traits mediated by sports commitment on sports motivation of wrestlers in Mazandaran province has a good fit. Neuroticism (p<0. 090, β = 0. 091) did not have a significant direct effect on wrestlers' sports commitment and was able to explain 0. 08% of the variance of this variable. Extroversion (p<0. 0001, β = 0. 245) had a significant direct effect on wrestlers' sports commitment and was able to explain 6. 12% of the variance of this variable. Also, neuroticism (p <0. 015, β = 0. 123) had a significant direct effect on wrestlers' sports motivation and was able to explain 1. 51% of the variance of this variable. Extraversion (p<0. 0001, β = 0. 180) has a significant direct effect on wrestlers' sports motivation and has been able to explain 3. 24% of the variance of this variable, conscience (p<0. 0001, β = 0. 205) has a significant direct effect on wrestlers' sports motivation and was able to explain 4. 2% of the variance of this variable, and finally sports commitment (p<0. 0001, =β = 0. 374) It has a significant direct effect on wrestlers' sports motivation and was able to explain 13. 98% of the variance of this variable. It should be noted that the direct effect of conscience on wrestlers' sports commitment has not been significant and its regression coefficient is non-significant. Among the Neuroticism personality traits, both direct (0. 435) and indirect (0. 120) effects had on sports motivation, extraversion had both direct (0. 800) and indirect effects (0. 408) on sports motivation but conscientiousness had a direct effect (0. 762) only on wrestlers' sports motivation. Conclusion: Overall, the results showed that sports motivation and sports commitment can be explained by personality traits. Different personality traits are effective in motivating sports for sports activities. However, due to the limited sample of wrestlers, caution should be exercised in delivering results to other athletes and members of the community who are at different levels of competition. Sports psychologists, wrestling coaches, and wrestlers can motivate people to participate in sports by emphasizing motivational personality traits. Also, further research on samples that are at different levels of competition will pave the way for generalizing the research results to all athletes. In addition, the study of the mediating role of other sports variables will play an important role in the development of existing knowledge in this field. In general, it can be said that the characteristics of Neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness and sports commitment increase sports motivation in wrestlers.

Yearly Impact:  

View 61

Download 125 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    257
  • End Page: 

    264
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    70
  • Downloads: 

    119
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: One of the most critical issues in the field of health is mental health and financial health. As one of the critical issues in the individual sphere, mental health has a vital role in individuals' mental and behavioral functioning (2). The impact of mental health in all aspects of the individual has led to it being identified as an influential variable in individual discussions (7). Promoting mental health plays a vital role in preventing high-risk behaviors among individuals. In other words, by managing mental health and improving its various aspects, it can be hoped that people will behave within the framework of values, norms, and standards of society. This issue is due to the functions of mental health in the development of mental abilities of individuals, which has been able to help the mental and physical development of individuals (8). Another variable studied in the present study is financial health. Today, the emergence of corruption as a human phenomenon has created significant problems for different societies (9). Financial health is formed in response to financial transparency, lack of corruption, and inappropriate financial behaviors (11). Financial health refers to the observance of local, national, and international standards and laws in trade. As one of the crucial issues in today's societies, mental health has played an important and influential role in the occurrence of abnormal behaviors. In a way, increasing financial health has improved people's financial matters as an internal force, and reducing financial health as a strong constraint has caused corruption and abnormality in people's financial behaviors (12). Financial health functions in improving countries' financial situation have caused various researchers to try on financial health capacities and strategies to improve it in the organizational and individual fields (14). Improving the culture of tax compliance of citizens, as an essential issue in improving the tax situation of any country, has an essential role in the development and construction of communities; Today, improving the culture of tax compliance of citizens has been considered as a necessity by researchers in various fields. Considering the functions of mental health and financial health in individuals' behavioral and attitudinal domains, the functions of these variables in some issues such as the culture of tax compliance of citizens have not been scientifically and theoretically agreed upon by researchers. On the other hand, considering the capacities of mental health and financial health, it seems that these variables can improve the culture of tax compliance by influencing the mental state of individuals and improving their motivational status. This has led to a research vacuum in this area. Therefore, the present study aimed to explain the structural relationships between mental health, financial health, and the culture of tax compliance of citizens tried to fill this research gap. Therefore, the central question of the present study is whether the mental health and financial health of the culture of tax compliance of citizens are effective? Methods: The present study is applied and field. The method of the present study was a survey in terms of the data collection method. The study's statistical population included all tax modes in Gorgan, the exact number of which was not available. According to the Cochran sample size formula, in a situation where the population size is uncertain, 384 people were identified as the research sample. The reliability of this questionnaire was determined to be 0. 81 in the research of Ebrahimian et al. In the present study, the reliability of this questionnaire was determined to be 0. 85. To analyze the data of the present study, the statistical method of structural equations was used. The whole process of analyzing quantitative research data was performed in SPSS software version 20 and PLS version 2. Results: According to the level of t-relationships, it was found that financial health affects the culture of Compliance by 0. 573. The results also showed that mental health has an effect on compliance culture of 0. 398. Selected indicators were used to evaluate the fit of the research model. And the results showed that all three components of mental health, financial health, and culture of tax compliance are in good condition (Table 1). Fornell and Locker methods were used to investigate the divergent visibility, which shows that the second root of each structure's mean extracted variance values is greater than the correlation values of that structure with other structures (Table 2). Considering that the desired value of this index is higher than 0. 32, it can be said that the value of the Q2 index in the identified factors is in a favorable situation (Table 3). Considering that the desired value of the GOF index is higher than 0. 36, it can be stated that the value of this index is in a favorable position in the variable of compliance culture. According to the results of the model fit index, it was found that the research model has a good fit in all indicators (Table 4). Conclusion: The present study found that mental health has a substantial and influential role in citizens' culture of tax compliance. Improving the level of health as one of the indicators of the development of countries has a vital role in improving the health, cultural and social status of individuals. This issue has led to attention to various aspects of health and efforts to improve it as essential and critical goals. Improving health can have positive effects in other areas of humanity and affect all levels of society. Among the broad field of health, mental health has always been discussed as one of the most critical and critical pillars of health. Investing in improving mental health can improve citizens' tax compliance culture to a desirable level. In other words, mental health causes people to identify environmental norms well and make reasonable efforts to respond. This has led citizens to better understand the need for tax issues through mental health benefits and have a good level of a tax compliance culture. Financial health seems to reduce some immoral activities, including corruption. In other words, financial health provides the basis for controlling corruption and preventing unethical financial behaviors. This issue has led to financial health, creating a platform for developing a culture of tax compliance of citizens. Financial health creates capacities among individuals, which causes the culture of tax compliance of citizens to improve. According to the present study results, it is suggested that evaluation systems be established in the field of mental health and financial health to assess the situation of citizens in this field. The results confirm the impact of mental health on financial health and the culture of tax compliance on taxpayers. According to the research results and the importance of taxes on the one hand and the role of health in various dimensions of society, on the other hand, it is suggested that officials pay special attention to the mental health of taxpayers.

Yearly Impact:  

View 70

Download 119 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    31
  • End Page: 

    36
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    82
  • Downloads: 

    94
Abstract: 

Ambiguous genitalia disorder is an uncommon situation that happens between 1 per every 4, 500 live births and falls into disorders of sexual development. In general, the reproductive system is made up of Wolff and Mü llerian tubes. In the male fetus, the SRY gene promotes testicular development. The testes then produce androgens, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone, leading to the development of the male reproductive system and, at the same time, preventing the growth of the female reproductive system by preventing the growth of the molar tubes. The development of the female reproductive system also occurs under the control of two genes, DAX1 and WNT4, which prevent the development of testicles in girls. Disorder of sex development (DSD) is defined as a congenital mismatch between sex phenotype, gonadal, and sex chromosome, which mainly present with atypical genital appearance or ambiguous genitalia. Enlarged clitoris, untouched testicles, bifurcated scrotum are some of the obvious symptoms of sexual ambiguity. This disorder is a tragic and very sad event and a serious illness that imposes deep emotional and psychological worries on the family. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt immediate and rational management with clinical, hormonal, genetic, molecular and radiographic research to determine the cause and treatment approach. True sexual ambiguity refers to a condition in which a person has both ovarian and testicular tissue, in which the external genitalia show all the intermediate degrees of male to female. During puberty, the signs of masculinity and femininity occur in various forms, and about two-thirds of people have the XX 46 karyotype, one-tenth the XY 46 karyotype, and the rest have chromosomal mosaicism. Psuedosexual ambiguity is based on two types of false feminine and masculine false. A person with a female pseudosexual ambiguity shows some masculine characteristics and falls into different categories, each of which appears due to a lack of a specific enzyme with its own clinical symptoms. The most common of these is congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which occurs due to a deficiency of the enzyme 21-hydroxylase and is the most common cause of sexual ambiguity in infants. A male pseudosexual ambiguity is a person in whom the sinuses are exclusively testicular but the external genitalia appear as female or male that is not completely differentiated. In this article, a late term neonate with ambiguous genitalia, born of a 19-year-old mother, was reported. On initial examination by a pediatrician, micro penis and empty scrotum like labia was observed. The pediatrician emphasized the importance of determining the sex of the baby at the right time, trying to educate the baby's family to perform cytogenetic tests to prepare a karyotype first and then check the hormonal profile and finally determine the appropriate sex for them, through counseling It was done with the relevant specialists. At present, patients with ambiguous genitalia due to the management of sexual development disorders (DSD) as a result of classification of disorders and the availability of adequate cytogenetic facilities have a better chance than before for rapid diagnosis, appropriate treatment and reconstruction of the genital tract through surgery. In addition, early detection of the disease is the best course of action, which can be done by genetic counseling to examine the exact history of the disorder in relatives, the relationship between parents and other developmental disorders in other children in the family.

Yearly Impact:  

View 82

Download 94 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    37
  • End Page: 

    47
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    65
  • Downloads: 

    105
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Neuromuscular junction is a synaptic junction in which motor neurons are connected to muscle fibers. Neuromuscular junction is a complex structure that changes under the influence of various stages of development as well as environmental changes such as pathological conditions and genetic and non-genetic diseases and physiological conditions such as physical activity and exercise training. During about a first third of life, the growth of the nervous system naturally promotes an increase in strength and muscle mass. However, with age, the function of the nervous system also slowly decreases. Neuromuscular junction is one of the structures that are damaged due to aging processes. Neuromuscular junction are important for understanding the basic concepts, diagnosis and treatment of atrophy and reduction of muscle mass. An active lifestyle is particularly important for understanding the function of neuromuscular junctions in changes in muscle mass and their application in clinical settings. Exercise training and physical activity as a metabolic and neuromotor stress can improve the overall function of the neuromuscular junction by improving neuromuscular signaling, and improving muscle function, a factor known to aid growth. Exercise training leads to impressive changes in the neuromuscular junction of young and old animals. However, large studies aimed at investigating these effects have introduced methodological variables that show effects on the results under study. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically investigate the effects of exercise training on neuromuscular junction and related diseases in the lives of young, adult and old animals. Methods: In this systematic review article, the results of articles presented on the effect of exercise on neuromuscular junction in Google Scholar, Web of science, PubMed databases, which included five thousand article titles, were reviewed and analyzed. In this study, two independent evaluators, WKN and EFG, reviewed all titles during the analysis. Then, the abstracts of the articles were evaluated using PRISMA. Of the articles reviewed, 109 articles were used for the initial analysis of chicks. The selection criteria were such that the abstract of the article should have sufficient data on the parameters of the neuromuscular junction components, the animals studied as well as the therapies, and the measures used in these studies. Among the articles, 26 full-text articles were analyzed and among these 26 articles, 11 articles were used for systematic review. The results of the study showed that the breeds of animals used in the selected articles were rodents including SD (Sprague Dawley) rats, Fisher rats, Vistar rats and C57BL / 6NNia rats. In terms of age and gender, all articles provided information on the effects of exercise on the neuromuscular components of both young and adult animals. Among these articles, four articles examined the effects of exercise on the parameters of neuromuscular connection and in all studies, male animals were used. Most of the exercises used in the research were endurance exercises. Only two articles were done on strength training. The duration of the training intervention in the research varied from 6 weeks to 15 weeks. The number of training sessions was 5 times a week. None of the articles examined seasonal exercise to prescribe exercise intensity. Results: Regarding the effect of training on the presynaptic part, the results showed that endurance training caused hypertrophy of the presynaptic part, including area, length, total area and complexity of neuromuscular connection. Endurance training had an effect on the morphological adaptation of the neuromuscular junction in muscles such as the soleus muscle and to a lesser extent in the long toe extensor muscles of the gluteus maximus as well as the soleus muscle. Most of the results obtained from the systematic study showed that in some of the analyzed parameters such as mean and total branch length as well as branch complexity, there are high levels of heterogeneity. The results also showed that endurance training did not have a significant effect on the postsynaptic sections of slow-acting neuromuscular fibers. However, many changes were observed in fast-twitch fibers. In addition, the analysis shows the general effects of an increase in the overall environment and end-plate dispersion as well as a decrease in the drug spot environment before and after synaptic mating of fast-twitch myofibers. The whole postsynaptic section showed similar changes to the process of presynaptic changes. Although thethey were more dependent on the type of exercise provided. In endurance training, for example, it reduced the spotty environment of slow-fiber neuromuscular junction in the soleus muscles, while not showing morphological compatibility with strength training. Regarding the effect of aging on neuromuscular connection, the results showed that the aging process is naturally associated with various adaptations in neuromuscular connection. Exercise also increases longevity and also strengthens the structure of the neuromuscular junction in old age. Studies in young and old animals during exercise have shown that adaptations that occur in the structure of the neuromuscular junction may vary with age. Exercise can be positively involved in the up regulation of genes and the protein expression of several molecules and growth factors. Physical activity and exercise naturally increase the expression of growth factor such as neurotrophic factors which can effecting on quality of function an Structure of neuromuscular junction. Conclusion: In general, the research findings showed that the neuromuscular junctions, including presynaptic and postsynaptic, as well as its morphological structure are affected by different developmental stages and undergo changes during development from embryonic to old age. Also, pathological conditions such as the type of disease or injury can cause changes in the structural components of the neuromuscular junction, which ultimately lead to changes in the quality of motor function. Also, exercise can play an effective role in improving the structural and functional quality of the neuromuscular junction. Therefore, regular exercise can be a preventive method in old age and its negative effects on muscle mass and motor function, which is created by improving neuromuscular connections. Due to the difference in results between aerobic and resistance training methods, more research is needed by applying the main variables of training, including training intensity, training volume, etc. for better conclusions in this regard.

Yearly Impact:  

View 65

Download 105 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    48
  • End Page: 

    58
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    61
  • Downloads: 

    100
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease and its main pathological manifestation at the tissue level is local destruction of articular cartilage, which manifests itself in mobile joints by destruction of articular cartilage with new ossification at the surface and periphery of the affected joints (1). Research shows that several factors are involved in the formation of osteoarthritis. These include biochemical or systemic factors (such as genetics, aging, food intake, estrogen intake, bone density, and metabolic syndrome) and biomechanical factors such as muscle weakness, joint stiffness, and joint damage (2). Cell studies report that growth and regeneration of damaged muscle is done by satellite cells (5). Regarding the activation of satellite cells from the off state, studies show multiaxial processes in this field (7). Activation of The Myogenic Regulatory Factors (MRFs) and a group of chain transcription factors including MURF-1 and myoD lead to the participation of these factors in the stages of myogenic development (5). Most studies on osteoarthritis of the knee joint have focused on the tissue of the knee joint, and the effect of non-surgical methods including hyaluronic acid injection and even exercise in osteoporosis of the knee on satellite cell activity or activation of MRFs and factors of chain transcription loop including myoD, the skeletal muscle involved in the knee joint of patients have not been studied or are difficult to access. The present study sought to answer the question whether hyaluronic acid injection and exercise affect the expression of MURF-1 and myoD genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of experimental osteoarthritis rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 35 adult 8-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups, which included: 1) control-healthy, 2) control-patient, 3) patient + exercise, 4) patient + hyaluronic acid, 5) patient + exercise + hyaluronic acid. Knee osteoarthritis was surgically treated in rats. In the hyaluronic acid group, they received a concentration of 30 micrograms once a week for three weeks. Rats in the exercise group exercised on animal treadmills five times a week at a speed of 16 to 18 m/min. 48 hours after the end of the protocol, gastrocnemius muscle tissues were isolated and the expression of MYOD and MURF-1 genes were measured by Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR). Results: According to the calculated F value (5. 4) and its significance at the level of P = 0. 001, there is a significant difference between different groups. Figure 1 shows the expression of MURF-1 gene, a significant decrease in the healthy, exercise, hyaluronic acid, hyaluronic acid + exercise groups, compared with the patient group (p = 0. 001). Hyaluronic acid + exercise group had a significant decrease compared to hyaluronic acid and exercise groups (p = 0. 001). The expression values of MYOD gene according to the calculated F-value (26. 47) and its significance at P = 0. 001 level indicate the existence of significant differences between different research groups. Accordingly, in comparison with the patient and hyaluronic acid group, a significant increase was observed in the exercise group (P = 0. 04), healthy, hyaluronic acid + exercise (P = 0. 001). The hyaluronic acid + exercise group had a significant increase compared to the exercise group (P = 0. 001) (Figure 2). Conclusion: The results of this study show that hyaluronic acid injection in osteoarthritis rats is associated with decreased expression of MURF-1 in gastrocnemius muscles. However, hyaluronic acid has no effect on MYOD expression. This result suggests that hyaluronic acid, by inhibiting MURF-1 expression, has the potential to inhibit skeletal muscle atrophy and, on the other hand, has no role in altering MYOD expression and muscle building. Because MYOD is a key protein in regulating muscle differentiation, it is essential for the initiation of muscle hypertrophy signaling and the activation and proliferation of satellite cells (12). To date, the role of hyaluronic acid in the signaling pathway of muscle building in osteoarthritis has not been studied, but, it is worth noting that the injection of hyaluronic acid into the injured knee joint in the treatment of osteoarthritis, is a collective agreement that has been reported in studies (17, 18). Hyaluronic acid is part of the natural composition of cartilage and plays an important role in the viscoelasticity and lubrication of synovial and articular fluid and is one of the physiological factors of cartilage growth (12). Mechanism of action of hyaluronic acid through the number of living chondrocytes, creating repair thickness on the surface of cartilage, prevention of nitric oxide production in synovial and meniscus fluid, inhibition of chondrocyte apoptosis, decreased expression of metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β ) in synovial fluid (12). Studies have also reported that the effect of hyaluronic acid on osteoarthritis may be associated with its protective effect on cartilage by inhibiting the expression of PPAR-ϒ gene. In this regard, it is stated that animals treated with hyaluronic acid showed lower expression of PPAR-ϒ than the saline group (19). Therefore, by improving the mobility of the knee joint, the possibility of muscle activity and mediation of the interventions of the muscle building pathway is provided. In the present study, aerobic exercise at 18 m/min was associated with decreased MURF-1 expression and increased MYOD expression in the injured gastrocnemius muscle. Consistent with the results of the present study, eight weeks of endurance training prevented atrophy and reduced rodent muscle volume by inhibiting the expression of the MURF-1 gene (20). A similar result was shown in the study of Agha Ali Nejad et al. In this study, resistance exercise for four weeks in diabetic rats was prevented by inhibiting MURF-1 gene expression of skeletal muscle atrophy (22). Also, in the combined groups of hyaluronic acid and exercise, each of these therapies had a synergistic effect on the expression of MURF-1 gene. Biological factors such as age and inflammatory and metabolic status of the samples seem to affect the signal pathway and markers of atrophy and muscle building, in which there are still many ambiguities, the need for further extensive studies is felt. According to the results of this study, hyaluronic acid and moderate-intensity exercise can interfere with the expression of MURF-1, MYOD mRNA of the injured gastrocnemius muscle. Therefore, by inhibiting atrophy, they may play an important role in improving muscle building in osteoarthritis rats.

Yearly Impact:  

View 61

Download 100 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    59
  • End Page: 

    67
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    91
  • Downloads: 

    145
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Human capital development is one of the latest theories of development. The importance of this issue is to the extent that in the course of human life from ancient times until now, his first and most important need in relation to life and survival has always been to provide medical and health needs and provide the growth of science and technology in the medical sector that can Provide her daily medical and health needs (1). Therefore, the efficiency of a health care system, in itself, requires the creation of a systematic model based on the understanding of various potentials, including human resources, systems and production processes in the field of health and treatment (4). In this regard, planning for the development of human resources in health enterprises and the resulting benefits for enterprises, has become increasingly attractive for them. The success rate of national health systems depends significantly on the workforce employed in them (5). Considering the above, the need to pay attention to the health system and the performance of the treatment community and the need to perform its effective evaluation due to the complexity of activities in this area and consequently the complexity and important impact of the role of this group as a guardian of the health system. Rapid developments in this area and their interconnectedness are not covered by Brexit. Performance management allows the organization to modify its path based on changing conditions and give it dynamism. The study of conventional models in the field of evaluating the performance of organizations in the world, indicates the need to pay attention to the performance and efficiency and effectiveness of this performance and pay attention to the effects of the performance of organizations, especially in the health community. Therefore, the researcher is trying to answer the question that the model of human capital development in the health economy system of the country has a proper development? Methods: The present study is a descriptive-analytical study that was conducted within the framework of quantitative and qualitative approach and using the strategy of the optimal model of health economy management system. The statistical population of the present study in the qualitative sector consisted of managers of the country's health sector (senior and middle managers). Based on the level of literacy, scientific knowledge and managerial background, 20 managers of the country's health sector were selected as a sample and interviewed. Finally, the standard questionnaires of the Health Economics Management System, which include 15 questions and are scored based on a 7-point Likert scale, are among 302 managers of the country's health sector (senior and middle managers) and university professors related to the research topic. Which were selected by stratified random sampling method, distributed and collected. Finally, for data analysis in the quantitative part, the researcher used confirmatory factor analysis and modeling with PLS, analysis of variance and t-test. In the qualitative part, open methodology and exploratory factor analysis were used. Results: The results of the four stages showed that the requirements for financing human capital, health services management, internal processes and human capital participation are the final requirements based on the model of human capital development for the health economy management system (Table 1). It was also found that the research model and model indicators have a good fit (Table 2). Conclusion: In many health care systems around the world, much attention has been paid to human resource management. Which play an important role in the health network. In this context, labor training is an important issue. It is essential that HR personnel consider the composition of the health workforce both in terms of skills and level of training. New options for in-service training are needed to ensure the awareness and readiness of the workforce to meet the current and future needs of a particular country. Therefore, to increase efficiency, various human resource initiatives have been used. Outsourcing services has been used to convert fixed labor costs into variable costs as a means of improving efficiency. Given the challenges facing health care, hospitals and health systems can support organizational success by developing and implementing a strong human capital strategy. Doing so does not only support a high-performance workforce. It also improves the patient experience. Research has shown that health care organizations with exemplary talent management practices score 13% higher on patient satisfaction than those without it.

Yearly Impact:  

View 91

Download 145 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    68
  • End Page: 

    79
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    72
  • Downloads: 

    84
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Oxidative stress disrupts prooxidant-antioxidant (PAB) balance leading to a reduction in redox signaling and cellular and molecular damage to tissue components (4). In addition, ROS can damage mitochondrial DNA in the alveoli and disrupt the electron transfer chain as the most important site of oxidative phosphorylation regulation (5). Studies show that exercise can help to improve the ratio of prooxidant-antioxidant and the factors involved in oxidative stress and DNA damage (6, 7). However, in the study of Yousefpour et al. (2017) eight weeks of intermittent aerobic training had no effect on the activity of total plasma antioxidant capacity and the concentration of malondialdehyde in the liver tissue of rats (10). Tribulus terrestris has antioxidant benefits that have been widely used in traditional medicine (13). Studies show that Tribulus terrestris contains alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids and minerals (14). The interactive effect of exercise and valuable plant resources on factors affecting DNA degradation and prooxidants / antioxidants in lung tissue is not well understood. Therefore, the present study intends to investigate the question of whether 8 weeks of aerobic exercise and consumption of Tribulus terrestris extract have an effect on the oxidative stress markers of lung tissue in male rats poisoned with hydrogen peroxide? Methods: This is an experimental study. This research was conducted in 2019 on Wistar rats in Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. 42 male wistar rats randomly were divided into 7 groups. All groups received 100 mg/kg body weight of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 14 days intraperitoneal. Rats in supplemented groups received Tribulus terrestris hydroalcoholic extract with doses of 5 and 10 mg per day by gavage method. Aerobic training was performed on a treadmill at a speed of 23 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/week for eight weeks (19-21). after the last training session lung tissue was extracted and oxidative stress markers concentration measured by ELISA method. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract, aerobic training and intervention of tribulus terrestris extract with aerobic training led to significant increase in levels of methyl guanine, Prooxidants-antioxidant balance (PAB) and Cytochrome C Oxidase, as well as significant decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) the lung tissue (p=0. 001) (fig. 1-5). Conclusion: The findings of this study were consistent with the results of Simioni et al. (2018), Siu et al. (2011) and Hejazi et al. (2014) (7-9). Aerobic exercise creates a defense mechanism that helps to restore cellular homeostasis and reduce ROS production (22). The mechanism of change of factors involved in oxidative damage and destruction of cellular DNA following aerobic exercise includes increased intracellular responses and response of various body tissues to oxidative stress produced during exercise and catabolism of synthetic components of proteins and cell defense structure (26). Aerobic exercise can have a protective effect against these injuries by strengthening and activating the body's antioxidant and immune systems (27). Compounds in Tribulus terrestris purify various reactive oxygen species, including superoxide anion (O2-) and hydroxyl radical (OH) (33). It is recommended that regular aerobic exercise and Tribulus terrestris extract be considered to Reduce oxidative stress and health of lung tissue. In the present study, there were limitations in the present study, including the study of animal specimens. Other limitations of this study include lack of measurement of other oxidative stress-related factors. According to the results, aerobic exercise and tribulus terrestris can improve lung tissue health by improving Redox conditions and reducing oxidative stress.

Yearly Impact:  

View 72

Download 84 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    80
  • End Page: 

    94
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    74
  • Downloads: 

    113
Abstract: 

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system which is caused by impaired immune response against self-antigens (2). In 2016, more than 2 million MS patients were reported worldwide (3). The prevalence of the disease in Iran is estimated to be 29. 3 and its incidence 3. 4 per 1000 (4). The disease usually occurs in adults in the age range of 20 to 40 years and is twice as common in women as men (5). Despite extensive efforts to identify the mechanisms involved in the disease process, the cause of the disease remains unknown. However, it is believed that of genetic factors, viral infections and some other environmental factors increase the risk of the disease (7). Most studies show high titers of anti-EBV antibodies in the serum of patients as well as an increased risk of MS in people with a history of mononucleosis (9, 8). Although there have been conflicting reports, other infectious agents including herpes virus type 6, retroviruses and Chlamydia pneumoniae are reported to involved in the development of MS (10-13). In addition to environmental factors, many evidences showed that genetic factors can also be effective in the incidence of the disease. There is a strong association between DQB1 * 0602, DQA1 * 0102, DRB1 * 1501, HLA-DRB1 * 03 alleles and MS, while HLA-DRB1 * 01 and HLA-DRB1 * 11 alleles reduce the risk of disease. (15, 16). It also appears to be a link between genes involved in the immune system responses, such as genes for T cells beta receptor, cytokines, TIM3, NLRP3, and MS, which need further investigation (14: 17-19). Both innate and acquired immune responses against self-antigens are involved in the development of MS. CD4 + T, CD8 + T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, NK cells, NKT and mast cells and molecules such as antibodies, TLRs, complement and cytokines have been reported to be major mediators of disease progression. In the past, it was mostly thought that MS is caused only by T lymphocytes, but proving the presence of B lymphocytes in the meninges of patients, provided important evidence for playing an essential role of B lymphocytes in the disease process. (24). B lymphocytes are involved in the progression of MS in three pathways: 1) the production of antibodies against self-antigens. 2) Antigen delivery to specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells by MHC class I and II expression 3) Cytokine production including IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ , and TGF-β (32-34). Some studies have suggested the presence of abnormal lymphoid follicles containing B lymphocytes and plasma cells in the meninges of groups of secondary progressive MS (SP-MS) patients. The presence of lymphoid-like structures in the brains of patients with MS can be a site for the proliferation and maturation of B cells, which eventually leads to locall production of immunoglobulins which is associated with the severity and clinical signs of the disease (36, 37). More than two decades ago, it was discovered that B cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, could have regulatory properties. Several studies have shown that B cells secrete a variety of anti-inflammatory factors such as IL-10 and IL-35 in response to autoantigens stimulation to prevent disease progression (59). In the absence of IL-10-producing cells, the Th1-mediated pro-inflammatory immune response persisted and mice did not recover from the disease (60). These findings eventually led to B cells being considered as important cells in the production of IL-10 for control of EAE. There are also supporting evidence for regulatory B cell (Breg) abnormalities in the MS patients (25, 26). Therefore, the present study reviews the latest findings provided for the subsets and roles of the Bregs contributing to the MS pathogenesis. Regulatory B cells (Bregs) have been functionally defined mostly due to their capacity to produce anti-inflammatory cytokines including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β ), interleukin-35 (IL-35) and more importantly interleukin-10 (IL-10) following stimulation most often by toll-like receptor 9 agonists, CD40 ligand, and B cell receptors (59, 68, 72). Numerous studies suggest that regulatory B cells are formed at different stages of B lymphocyte development and are involved in the homeostasis of immune responses (61). The phenotype and mode of action of these cells vary depending on the cell from which they are derived. Thus, Transitional, mature and memory B cells in the germinal centers are the origins of CD19 + CD20+ CD24hi CD38hi CD27-, CD19 + CD20low/int CD24-CD38-CD27int and CD1dhiCD5+ CD19+ CD20+ CD24hi CD38low/int CD27+ regulatory B cells respectively. The regulatory activity of these cells is mainly through the production and secretion of IL-10 (62) Transitional Breg cells which express high levels of IL-10, can play an inhibitory role in the autoimmune diseases (73). One of the most important activities of these cells is to suppress the proliferation and production of inflammatory cytokines from Th1 and Th17 cells (74). This observation suggests that functional defects of Bregs during disease may have reduced their effectiveness. Plasmablast Breg cells are regulatory B cells was first identified and introduced in two consecutive reports in 2014. In humans, their surface markers are CD19 + CD20low / int CD24-CD38-CD27int and produce and secrete IL-10, IL-35, IRF4 and Blimp1 (78, 79). During induction of EAE in mice, the above cells form in the lymph nodes and suppress inflammation through IL-10 production (78). Another class of regulatory B cells known as B10 were first identified in contact hypersensitivity with the CD1dhiCD5 + phenotype. These cells suppressed inflammation induced by T lymphocyte activity through secreting IL-10 (80). IL-10 is produced by regulatory B cells following stimulation of TLR2 and TLR4 (80). In a study on patients with lupus (SLE), human regulatory B cells with CD19 + CD24hiCD38hi phenotype were isolated from peripheral blood. The cells produced IL-10 under CD40L stimulation, which in turn inhibited CD4 + T cells producing IFN-γ and TNF-α (87). In addition to producing soluble factors such as IL-10, physical contact between T CD4 + and regulatory B cells is also necessary to exert an inhibitory effect by B cells. This means that antigen detection by regulatory B cells is one of the essential processes and antigen stimulation is important for complete inhibition of Th1 cells differentiation (88). Recent findings point to the fact that Bregs have lower quantity and IL-10 producing capacity in MS patients particularly in relapse phase (66). Many studies show that disease modifying drugs (DMDs) which have been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, are able to improve the function and number of regulatory B cells in multiple sclerosis patients and EAE (63-72). Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of proper regulatory B cell activity in preventing autoimmune reactions, especially MS. Modulation of these cells may be a way to prevent the progression of MS in the early stages of the disease. Better understanding the origin and specific markers for the separation and improving the function of Breg cells is one of the most essential issues that will touch the subject of regulatory B cell therapy. These changes should affect goals such as increasing the number and secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β .

Yearly Impact:  

View 74

Download 113 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    9
  • End Page: 

    18
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    78
  • Downloads: 

    99
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Type 2 diabetes is one of the metabolic diseases that is associated with partial or absolute insulin deficiency, high blood glucose and disorders of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. This condition is characterized by a persistent rise in blood sugar and can be caused by a disorder in the secretion or action of insulin, or both. Metabolic pattern imbalance, insulin resistance, and increased levels of inflammatory markers have been reported in diabetic patients. The effects of diabetes threaten the lives of millions of people around the world every year. A healthy lifestyle, proper nutrition and regular exercise are the most important factors in preventing or reducing the effects of diabetes. main imperfection in the pathology of type 2 diabetes include insulin resistance in muscle and liver. Skeletal muscle is considered to be the largest organ in the body in non-obese individuals, and as an active endocrine organ it releases myokines. Myokines have systemic effects on the liver, adipose tissue, brain and immune system. They can be effective in regulating metabolic and inflammatory processes. Fibroblast growth factor-21 is known as a member of the family of fibroblast growth factors and has recently been introduced as a factor in regulating the metabolic process. Because diabetes medications have many limitations, including high cost, and side effects, many strategies have been proposed to control insulin and reduce insulin resistance in diabetes. Regular exercise and following a healthy diet is a good strategy to treat and reduce costs in many metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. High-Intensity Interval Training has recently been considered as a suitable training option, not only among athletes but also among those who are limited in time. Exercise reduces inflammation and reduces cell death caused by diabetes in the body's cells by activating intracellular and extracellular pathways. Increased myokines due to exercise can be effective in regulating metabolic and inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training on FGF21 Expression in Flexor Hallucis Longus muscle tand serum TNF-α Levels of diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 48 Wistar male rats weighing 150± 10g were randomly divided into 4 groups of Diabetes (n = 10), Control (n = 10), Diabetes +Training (n = 12) and Training (n = 12). All animals were kept in separate cages under the similar conditions. In this study, For induction of experimental diabetes Wistar rats received streptozotocin as a single dose of 50 mg / kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection. The training program consisted of 10 sets of 1 minute running (2 minutes rest between each set) on a treadmill with gradually increasing speed and incline, for 6 weeks and 3 training sessions per week. Running speed gradually increased from 18 to 31 m / min over 6 weeks and the treadmill slope increased from 2 to 10 ° (50 to 110% VO2max). At the end of the sixth week, after FHL muscle tissue sampling, FGF-21 gene expression was measured by Real time PCR and serum TNF-α level was measured by ELISA using Diaclone kits from France. In the inferential statistics section, Shapiro-Wilk test was used to the normality of data. equality of variances with Levene test was also measured. Findings were evaluated at a significance level of 95% (p <0. 05). SPSS software version 22 was used for statistical analysis of data. Results: The results showed that 6 weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training did not have a significant effect on FGF-21 gene expression of FHL muscle in diabetic rats (p = 0. 095). However, the reduction of inflammation and inflammatory factors such as TNF-α was shown due to High-Intensity Interval Training (p = 0. 000). Conclusion: Considering all the above and also the results of statistical analysis, it was found that High-Intensity Interval Training has no significant effect on the expression of FGF-21 gene in FHL muscle tissue of diabetic rats. But regular exercise, in addition to weight control, has anti-inflammatory effects and suppresses systemic inflammation and muscle atrophy. Tnf-α is one of the major pro-inflammatory cytokines that causes inflammation. The results of the present study showed that High-Intensity Interval Training reduces the negative effects of diabetes on the cardiovascular system and health by activating various cellular and molecular pathways and mechanisms. Serum Tnf-α levels, which are a factor in pro-inflammation and apoptosis, are reduced by High-Intensity Interval Training. However, much research is needed to substantiate the above results. In addition, High-Intensity Interval Training can be used as a therapeutic approach to diabetes management for patients who are unable to perform continuous exercise for a variety of reasons.

Yearly Impact:  

View 78

Download 99 Citation 0 Refrence 0
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    28
  • Issue: 

    3
  • Start Page: 

    95
  • End Page: 

    106
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    89
  • Downloads: 

    121
Abstract: 

Background & Aims: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that leads to myelin degradation and neuronal damage. MS symptoms detrimentally aff ect the quality of life and expectancy in MS patients. It affects frequently peoples, aged between 18 and 40 years, with an incidence 2– 3 times higher in women. . MS can be arranged conforming to its clinical course in four various types of MS could be distinguished: relapsing remitting MS (RRMS), primary progressive MS (PPMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and progressive-relapsing MS. Experimental animal pattern for the MS disease that commonly used is Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). inflammation, demyelination, axonal loss and gliosis in EAE associated with interaction among a variety of immunopathological mechanisms. The results of immunological, histopathological, and genetic studies on MS patients suggest that autoimmunity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Th17 cells are thought to play an important role in the onset of the early phase of MS, while Th1 cells are involved in the late stages of CNS inflammation. Decreased number of regulatory T cells as well as dysfunction of these cells have been observed in MS patients. The results of previous studies showed a significant association between dietary supplements and the onset and progression of the MS disease. Researchers in last years, becoming more interest about relationship among the dietary MS and supplementation. Supplementation with Vitamin D, vitamin A, Curcumin, Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids improve the patient's physiological symptoms and increase life expectancy and reduce the symptoms of MS. Vitamin D establish an essential fat-soluble vitamin obtained through exposure to sunlight as well as dietary origin such as animal protein, fi sh liver oil, and fortifi ed dairy and cereal products. The cellular mechanisms of vitamin D are mediated by the Vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is one of transcription factor that belong steroid superfamily of nuclear receptors. heterodimer form of Ligand-bound VDR and retinoid X receptor (RXR), together becomes translocated to the nucleus where it performs its functions on gene regulation. The vitamin D effects are associated with cell type-specific and depend on VDR/ RXR binding, which is influenced by the cellular chromatin condition and the availability of interacting DNA-binding protein component. VDR/RXR as nuclear receptors associated with a diversity of coactivators and corepressors in cells and resulting in local epigenetic changes that have either permissive or repressive effects on gene expression. DNA methylation, histone modifications and expression of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), which is important for cell survival and its physiological function are epigenetic condition comprises highly interconnected mechanisms. Vitamin D has impact on histone modifications and VDR/RXR associations with deacetylases, histone methyl transferases and histone acetyltransferases that its access on DNA methylation is just beginning to emerge. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) origin turmeric plant Curcuma longa and its derivatives known as curcuminoids have been identified to be effective in experimental studies. In addition, curcumin has been tested as an anti-inflammatory agent for treatment of cancers and other diseases. Curcumin exerts its beneficial effects by anti-oxidative, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties and is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation and promote wound healing. Moreover, curcumin has been gradually used as an auxiliary drug for various diseases, such as cancer, arthritis, and immune diseases. Curcumin exerts its beneficial effects by anti-oxidative, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties and is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation and promote wound healing. Curcumin inhibits EAE in association with the inhibition of neural antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. Curcumin modulates Th1/Th17 responses by acting directly on T cells and indirectly by attenuating IL-12/IL-23 production by antigen presenting cells (APCs) in EAE and can improve the severity of symptoms in the Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) model by modulating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway signaling. Curcumin enhances neurotrophic factors and repair mechanisms in CNS via repair of myelin. The proteins and cells involved in the immune system have specific actions and role. The role of T-helper 17(Th17) cells and T regulatory (Treg) cells in MS pathogenesis, the effect of vitamin A, and of its active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), as well as the management of inflammation, have been well analyzed, mainly in in vitro studies. Also it is known that in MS, the balance between Th17 cells and Treg cells is diminished. Vitamin A may amend MS pathogenesis via several mechanisms. Those mechanisms include the reduction of inflammatory processes by re-balancing pathogenic (Th1, Th17, Th9) and immune-protective (Th2, Treg) cells, modulating the B-cell and dendritic cell functions, as well as increasing autoimmunity and regeneration tolerance in the CNS. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of micronutrients and dietary supplements on the immune system in MS. Thus, vitamin A could be considered as a potential co-treatment agent in MS disease management. Data of this review study were collected from PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases from 2000 to 2019 and keywords like “ Multiple Sclerosis, Vitamin D, Calcitriol, Retinoic acid, Vitamin A, Curcumin, Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids” were used in this search.

Yearly Impact:  

View 89

Download 121 Citation 0 Refrence 0

Advertising

مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID