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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    1388
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    3 (پیاپی 5/61)
  • Start Page: 

    59
  • End Page: 

    71
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    130
  • Downloads: 

    112
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

دولت ایلخانان مغول، پس از یک دوره تهاجم چهل ساله در ایران به قدرت رسید و هشتاد سال (736-656 ق) بر سر کار بود. این دولت از نظر قدرت نظامی و وسعت قلمرو، از دولت های بزرگ تاریخ ایران به شمار می آید، اما به رغم دفاع از مرزهای گسترده خود، بسیار بی ثبات بوده و همواره با بحران های سیاسی داخلی درگیر بوده است. از این رو، در اوج اقتدار به یکباره و در پی یک بحران داخلی سقوط کرد. بررسی آماری درباره ایلخانان در ایران نشان می دهد که سه عامل سن رسیدن به سلطنت، سن رخداد مرگ و مدت سلطنت آنها مولفه هایی تاثیرگذار در بی ثباتی مداوم آن دولت و نیز سقوط غیرمنتظره آن بوده است. تحقیق این مقاله بر اساس کاربرد علم آمار در تاریخ نگاری (Cliometrics) صورت گرفته که طی آن داده های آماری بر یک بستر زمانی مورد ارزیابی قرار می گیرد و دیگر عوامل موثر در بی ثباتی و سقوط آن در اینجا مورد نظر نبوده است.

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Writer: 

ABADIAN HOSSEIN

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    61/5
  • Start Page: 

    1
  • End Page: 

    22
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    169
  • Downloads: 

    115
Abstract: 

This article discusses the political and commercial relations between Iran and Soviet Union and the role Abdol-Hossein Teimurtash - the Minister in the Court of Reza Shah- did play in them. For that purpose, the article consults many pages of the records of Special Royal Office of Reza Shah, US National Archive in Maryland and British Records of National Archive. These records discuss, in a historical process, the reasons behind the overthrow of Teimurtash in later years and present a new narration of the issue. The article’s main focus is on the role of Teimurtash in establishing a political balance between Iran’s foreign relations with UK, USSR and Germany. It also introduces those who opposed to him both inside Iran and describes the effect of these oppositions in his fate.

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Writer: 

MORADI MASOUD

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    61/5
  • Start Page: 

    101
  • End Page: 

    122
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    117
  • Downloads: 

    98
Abstract: 

After the collapse of the Safavids Iran's political conditions encountered chaos, instability and insecurity. Under such conditions, European colonial powers such as Britain and France expanded their influence in different regions of the Middle East and India. Local governments in India were involved in competition with them and British government could establish strong government there. Under such circumstances, some of the famous Iranians-like descendants of Mir Namatollah Jazayery, the highest rank clergy of safavid period-migrated to India. How was Iran’s condition at the time that forced such famous families to migrate to India and serve the British colonial aims? Among The important elements in this regard are: upheavals, economical confusions, domestic insecurity, drought, increasing poverty, tumultuous political system and economic disorders, the development and the growing significance of the Ports such as Basreh and Booshehr because of the presence of the British.Also the fact that India and ottoman in neighborhood of Iran became more stable and prosperous caused many Iranians who sought peace and prosperity to migrate. The main goal of this article is to study the conditions which led many Iranians to migrate to India and serve the British as the agents of colonial power. The descendants of Mir Nematollah Jazayery, Mehdi Ail khan Khorasani and Mirza Abootaleb Khan were among the most important of these migrants who served the british.

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Writer: 

MANSOURBAKHT GHOBAD

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    61/5
  • Start Page: 

    123
  • End Page: 

    150
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    415
  • Downloads: 

    315
Abstract: 

Spice was considered a major agricultural product exported from the East to the west before the Renaissance. However, with the extensive developments in technical principles of production and increasing growth of European products and artifacts beyond Europe and increased demand of the west for different agricultural products in the Renaissance, Eastern communities had no choice but to increase the amount of agricultural products through changing subsistence farming to commercial agriculture in order to provide cost of consumer goods imports and different investment. The findings of this research indicate that Iran in Qajar period, especially after age of nassery, began the first stages of commercial agriculture and at the end of the period achieved significant success and adopted a Logical path in modernizing. But this direction changed out of the emergence of other factors; so modernization process in Iran was diverted to another route.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    61/5
  • Start Page: 

    151
  • End Page: 

    179
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    283
  • Downloads: 

    278
Abstract: 

In the wake of the First World War, Iranian Government was forced by specific political conditions to regard centralization policy as its main objective. To achieve this end, the government had to establish a set of new orgnizations, modernize military, bureaucratic, and educational institutions, and expand transportation networks. However, this programmes cold only be materialized on the basis of reliable financial sources.Therfore, in pursuing the path of the centeralization, the Governmment gained the control of economic resources and appeared as the country’s major economic coordinator. The autocratic nature of political regime facilitated such an endeavour.The Governmment’s economic policy was, relatively speaking, successful so far as it attempted to obtain financial support. Yet, Iran’s dependence on the capitalist world market and the vulnerability to its alterations inhibited the government from becoming the sole economic decision maker. The process of industrialization during the reign of Reza Shah could be studied through the prism of the inter-relationship of these factors.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    61/5
  • Start Page: 

    23
  • End Page: 

    58
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    2
  • Views: 

    1030
  • Downloads: 

    273
Abstract: 

The victory of Cyrus the Great over Astyags, the last Median king in 559 BC, led to the formation of Achaemenid kingdom. The conquest of some Eastern lands during the reign of Darius the Great and Egypt by Cambyses, helped the expanision of the Persian Empire from Sand River in the East to Mediterranean Sea and the Nile River in the West, and from Areal Sea in the North to the Persian Sea’s southern shores in the South. To administrate this vast empire Darius divided the Persian Empire to various Satrapies. Although after the conquest of India, Libya and Ethiopia by Darius the Great (in 517-518 BC) to the end of Persian Dynasty, no change took place in Persian boundaries, we witness a frequent change in The number of these Satrapies in the list of inscriptions. The number of Satrapies and the list of nations and the ethnical groups who have been ruled by Persians have been studied by scholars of Iranian Ancient history, but the political position of these Satrapies and their place in the Achaemenid inscriptions list as well as the reasons behinsd the changes in numbers of Satrapies has not been studied yet. However, by using historical research methods (based on Darius the Great's inscriptions) and comparing them with other sources such as those of Greeks, this paper attempts to examine the political position of Achaemenids satrapies as the main research question. To answer this question, first, the inscriptions (in which the name of Satrapies has been listed) will be introduced and second, based on those lists, we will investigate the number and the place of each Satrapy and also examine the grounds of political change in the position of Satrapies during the Persian Empire.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    61/5
  • Start Page: 

    59
  • End Page: 

    71
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    6130
  • Downloads: 

    912
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

The Il-Khanid dynasty of the Mongol Empire captured Iran and took the power after a nearly 40 years of war, and ruled it for 80 years (1258-1335 C / 656-736 A.H). Considering the military power and the vastness of the realm, it was one of the greatest governments in the history of Iran. However, it was also one of the most unstable of them, a battleground of domestic political crises. Therefore, because of these domestic crises, it faced its downfall while still in its apex of sovereignty. A statistical study of the Il-Khanid’s sway over Iran reveals the three influential elements in its instability and unexpected downfall: age of assuming the crown, age of dying, and the duration of kingship. This article rests only on the function of statistics in cliometrics.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    61/5
  • Start Page: 

    73
  • End Page: 

    100
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    311
  • Downloads: 

    232
Abstract: 

Ibn khaldun’s introduction is undoubtedly replete with profound ideas and innovative and ingenious outlooks. Howeve, r the attitudes and insights of those Moslems preceding him have been given due heed in his analyses because Ibn khaldun’s Mogadammeh (Introduction) relied on facts. As a case in point, Ibn khaldun has praised Masoudi quite extensively in this Mogadammeh, so far as to refer to his own work. As successive to and hence inspired by Masoudi’s. Nonetheless, the question is why Ibn khaldun has mentioned Masoudi, among other Moslem historians, as his quintessential model, and which of Masoudi’s intellectual and professional attributes has given rise to his being chosen as a model by Ibn khaldun. On the other hand, in some other case, Ibn khaldun has severely criticized and even refuted Masoudi’s orientation. All in all, it might be said that it was the structure of Morouj-o-al-zahab and praticulaurly Masoudi’s journies and its geographical discussion-which by themselves had formed the foundation of his historical argumentationthat gave rise to Ibn khaldun’s infatuation by Masoudi. Ibn khaldun’s criticism of Masoudi, however, regards those issues that are thought to be beyond his knowledge of omran. Apart from these two opposing views toward different Masoudi analytical approaches are taken toward the similar issues attended to by both authors. This difference of orientation is owing to the intricate composition of the Mogadammeh and Morouj-o-al-zahab, as well as the contrast in their attitudes.

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